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A human skull as a symbol of death. Production methods are individually explored to produce presentation quality mockups. One who is lawfully entitled to the profits and proceeds of an estate or property. This course is designed to cover the principles and techniques involved in the production and management of nursery and greenhouse crops including ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, and perennials. This course gives students practice in forms of hip hop dancing.

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The whole structure from the glomerulus to the end of the renal tubule is called a nephron and is the basic functional unit of the kidney. By filtering out a large volume of water and small molecules and then selectively allowing most of the water and nutrients to be reabsorbed, the nephrons allow humans to get rid of urea and other wastes in high concentrations and conserve water when needed.

Sodium chloride and other salts can also be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream as needed, but that function of the kidney is a key component for homeostasis which is another topic for another day. Get access risk-free for 30 days, just create an account. The urine exits the kidneys through two long tubes called ureters which carry the urine to the bladder.

Repeated contraction and relaxation of muscles in the ureter walls ensure that the urine flows in one direction from the kidneys to the bladder. The bladder itself is a balloon-like muscular organ, which is capable of stretching as it fills with urine. As the bladder fills with urine and the walls stretch to create a larger holding capacity, a signal is sent by the nerves of the bladder which gives us the sensation of the need to urinate.

The more that the bladder stretches, the more intense this sensation becomes until the bladder reaches its full capacity and the sensation becomes so overwhelming that it feels like you're gonna burst!

Most of the time, people don't let their bladder reach full capacity because it becomes so uncomfortable. Instead, people normally have control over when they empty their bladder by controlling a muscular valve at the exit point of the bladder.

When this valve is opened, and the bladder muscles contract, the urine enters the urethra , which the urine travels through before it exits the body. Detoxifying and modifying dangerous substances so that they can be quickly and easily removed from the body is accomplished by the human liver. An example of this would be ammonia, which is very toxic, so the liver converts it to urea which is far less toxic and can be easily removed from the body.

The kidneys are the organs that filter waste products out of the blood and help regulate blood composition and pressure. The filtrate travels through the tubules and as it does, nutrients, water and sodium chloride are reabsorbed from the renal tubules and returned to the blood. As water and nutrients are reabsorbed, the waste products are concentrated in the tubules and become urine.

After the urine is concentrated by the kidneys, it is stored in the bladder. Most people have control over when they empty their bladder by controlling a muscular valve at the exit point. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.

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By creating an account, you agree to Study. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Excretory System Each year in the U. Kidneys, the workhorses of the excretory system, perform these same functions more effectively than any machine. In this lesson, we'll talk about how the excretory system removes toxic substances from the body.

Try it risk-free for 30 days. An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. You must create an account to continue watching. Register to view this lesson Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student I am a teacher. What teachers are saying about Study. Are you still watching? Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds. Add to Add to Add to. Want to watch this again later? Excretory System Lesson for Kids.

What Is the Immune System? Gross Anatomy of the Urinary System. The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract. Kidney Lesson for Kids: Functions of the Lymphatic System. The Human Vascular System. Skeletal System and Muscular System. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development. Life, Physical and Chemical. The smallest non- cyclic group has four elements; it is the Klein four-group.

Four is also the order of the smallest non-trivial groups that are not simple. Four is the only integer n for which the non trivial alternating group A n is not simple. Four is the maximum number of dimensions of a real associative division algebra the quaternions , by a theorem of Ferdinand Georg Frobenius. The four-color theorem states that a planar graph or, equivalently, a flat map of two-dimensional regions such as countries can be colored using four colors, so that adjacent vertices or regions are always different colors.

The largest planar complete graph has four vertices. Lagrange's four-square theorem states that every positive integer can be written as the sum of at most four square numbers. Three are not always sufficient; 7 for instance cannot be written as the sum of three squares. Each natural number divisible by 4 is a difference of squares of two natural numbers, i.

Four is the highest degree general polynomial equation for which there is a solution in radicals. The four fours game, there are known solutions for all integers from 0 to but not Representing 1, 2 and 3 in as many lines as the number represented worked well. The Shunga would add a horizontal line on top of the numeral, and the Kshatrapa and Pallava evolved the numeral to a point where the speed of writing was a secondary concern. The Arabs ' 4 still had the early concept of the cross, but for the sake of efficiency, was made in one stroke by connecting the "western" end to the "northern" end; the "eastern" end was finished off with a curve.

The Europeans dropped the finishing curve and gradually made the numeral less cursive, ending up with a glyph very close to the original Brahmin cross. While the shape of the 4 character has an ascender in most modern typefaces , in typefaces with text figures the character usually has a descender , as, for example, in. On the seven-segment displays of pocket calculators and digital watches, as well as certain optical character recognition fonts, 4 is seen with an open top.

Television stations that operate on channel 4 have occasionally made use of another variation of the "open 4", with the open portion being on the side, rather than the top. The work includes vocabulary acquisition, cultural components, drills, sentence formation, and everyday conversation leading to proficiency. Language laboratory periods weekly are required.

A continuation of SGNL with more speaking and writing toward advancing proficiency. A continuation of SGNL with emphasis on more advanced skills. Intensive study with the purpose of mastering mid-level proficiency skills. This course will introduce the visual elements of art, their nature, functions and relationships in Painting, Sculpture and Architecture to the non-major.

This course presents a critical analysis of major themes in contemporary art, providing students with an appreciation of the artifacts of human imagination. Through the processes of synthesis and interpretation, students will engage in critical, creative, and innovative communication about contemporary works of art.

This course provides a chronological survey of the major monuments of painting, sculpture, architecture, textiles, and metalwork from the ancient through the medieval periods. This course will strengthen and complement current course offerings in the Department of Art, in particular, by providing more course offerings for non-majors.

Our current course offerings do not include a study of contemporary art at the freshman level. The study and application of two-dimensional design elements and principles using diverse media. An introduction to elements of design and the principles of arrangement as applied to problems in the third dimension. This studio course introduces the studio arts, art history, theory and technology to the incoming student.

It is designed to immerse students in an intense program of researching, interpreting and creating art in the twenty-first century. This course introduces the concepts, theories and information for development in ARTS and ARTS , the studio components linked with this visual arts foundation course. It is an arena for students to experience lectures, demonstrations, seminar activities and visiting speakers, as well as the more traditional aspects of the discipline.

It is geared towards contemporary visual concerns and uses experimental techniques to expose students to an array of styles and methodologies. An in-depth study of the fundamental principles of drawing and mark making. Students will draw from observation and develop the ability to create 2 dimensional representations using Line, Value, Shape, Edge, Plane and Volume, Space, Texture, Perspective, and Gesture. The use of negative space and compositional strategies are emphasized.

Traditions of drawing are examined and drawing is placed in a historical context that emphasizes its importance in contemporary art. Drawing from the model in various media. Gesture drawing and figure structure are studied. Line, Value, and Shape, Plane and Volume are used as elements to depict the figure in space with accurate proportions.

The study leads toward a final portfolio that demonstrates proficiency representing the figure in cohesive and complete compositions for submission to the BFA portfolio review. This is a beginning course intended for non-photography majors. Content of the course includes a study of cameras, photographic materials, and visual principles. Students must provide a digital camera. Non-Majors only Credit 3.

Continuation of Basic Design I with emphasis on various compositional approaches and color organization using a variety of materials and media. This is an introductory course in the use of the computer as an art-making medium.

The course introduces students to digital software and techniques, image creation and manipulation, digital design and compositional methods, and the use of digital tools as a vehicle of creative problem solving and personal creative expression. Students will explore a variety of processes and materials as ways of learning the vocabulary of three-dimensional art. Students will incorporate wood, metal, and found objects into art as ways of expanding their visual vocabulary.

Group critiques will help the student learn contemporary approaches to art making, to improve their sculptural skills and to develop personal artistic vision. This class is designed to give the art studio major the tools necessary to be a successful studio artist.

The primary focus will be the development of a professional portfolio that can be used for applying for graduate school, or submitting work to galleries, museums, and juried shows. Topics covered will include: Crate building, mat cutting and frame-making will also be addressed. Class discussions and readings on current art topics are also required.

This entry-level course is the first in building the foundation for graphic design. Each project builds upon the previous in depth and complexity of that process. The student is introduced to computer application of two-dimensional concepts and output. The principles and techniques of traditional animation, including the principles of motion, storyboarding, flipbooks, cel and pencil animation.

Also introduces students to the use of computers in animation. In this course, computer software is used to create 2D animations that incorporate traditional techniques and styles such as drawing and painting, cut paper, cel animation and stop action. Story development is emphasized and video editing techniques are practiced. This course focuses on the fundamental techniques that are used in visual development for entertainment design.

The assignments are intended to develop rapid drawing and rendering skills. The topics will include quick sketching, thumbnails, basic composition, and perspective.

A special emphasis will be placed on efficient digital rendering techniques that encompass the use of value to define form. The goal of this course is to provide an efficient approach to generating distinctive designs in a production environment. Designed for non-majors and minors, this course introduces students to the technical principles and creative potential of photography. Students will be introduced to advanced exposure techniques and the principles necessary to master use of the large format camera.

This course introduces the student to the tools and techniques used in the scanning, creation, manipulation, and presentation of digital images. Students are introduced to basic camera functions and concepts, use of visual design elements and articulation of personal ideas through the medium of fine art photography. An introduction to the materials, techniques and concepts of oil painting. Emphasis is placed on painting from observation, the depiction light and shadow, and basic color theory.

Process based painting and concept based abstraction are explored. Students will learn to recognize and use the tools and materials and nomenclature related to oil painting including supports and grounds, mediums, binders and brushes. The role of Painting in art history and in contemporary art will be examined.

An introduction to the techniques and procedures of printmaking. The emphasis is on relief, monoprint, and intaglio methods. A class which follows the precepts of the twentieth century art form of using and exploring the juxtaposition and layering of a variety of materials and images. The dynamics of composition and a further investigation of the use of color and inherent capabilities of contrasting images and textures will be studied. Students will use a variety of materials including the found object, discarded papers, invented textures and painted surfaces to create their imagery.

This course explores the use of the figure as subject matter in art. Observational skills are practiced and refined and personal expression is emphasized.

A variety of media are explored. The use of the figure in contemporary art is studied. The basic forming techniques will explore all aspects of hand building pinch, coil and slab construction , as well as an introduction to the wheel. Basic firing techniques and finishes will be discussed. The emphasis of the course will be rooted in sculpture.

This foundation course introduces an overview of history, principles, processes and terminology of typography. Type sensitivity is developed through a variety of means: The majority of work is created on the computer.

The techniques and processes of print media are explored. The use of color is emphasized. Students will be exposed to historical and aesthetic issues. Typical projects include corporate identity systems and ad campaigns. Production methods are individually explored to produce presentation quality mockups.

An introduction to sculptural form through projects involving woodworking and welding. Lectures and demonstrations will be given on tools, materials and safety procedures. This advanced course focuses on graphic design production techniques and the application of contemporary tools and processes employed by visual designers. This course emphasizes the mastery of a digital workflow, concluding with the physical output. This course will explore graphic communication and techniques for packaging structure and three dimensional design issues.

Experimentation with diverse materials and forms, typography, color and images will be developed for the targeted audience based on depth of research and design brief. In additions packaging sustainability will be addressed. Basics of 3D Animation including 3D modeling techniques, key-framing and graph editing, shading, lighting and rendering. This course is designed for students who are experienced with basic 3D animation concepts and technical practice.

The course introduces more sophisticated concepts and techniques and emphasizes animation development through hands-on practice. A study of the use of type in motion to create animated graphic designs, logos, titles, and animated concrete poetry.

This course is an exploration of alternative techniques in the creation of animation to include cutout animation, pixilation, lo-fi animation, as well as other emerging processes. Coursework will also focus on experimental approaches to story and content generation. Readings and discussions will focus on technical, aesthetic, and theoretical issues relating to these disciplines. This course will provide an investigation of traditional and alternative digital photographic printing and mixed media processes.

Students will complete a portfolio of original photographic work demonstrating personal creative and conceptual development. Blending portraiture and context, the environmental portrait illuminates the character and personality of its subject.

Learning to photograph people in their natural surroundings thus capturing insight into their lives is the goal of this course.

Students will complete a portfolio of original photographic work focusing on the topic of environmental portraiture. A different topic is presented each semester.

May be repeated for credit. This course will take an investigative look into the use of the human form through the medium of photography. There will be discussion of the variety of contexts and representations of the human body throughout the history of art.

Students will complete a body of photographic work using or referencing the human figure. Students learn the fundamentals of working with light both in the studio and on location. They are introduced to the use and control of existing light as well as high-powered electronic flash in the realm of digital photography.

This course is a continuation of ARTS Students will learn advanced studio lighting techniques while completing a body of creative photographic work. This course will engage students in an advanced study of the tools, techniques, and applications of digital photography. Emphasis is placed on non-destructive manipulation of images and digital workflow techniques. This course involves the exploration of advanced computer imaging techniques in support of individual student interests.

Advanced capture, manipulation, and printing procedures are explored and applied in developing digital portfolios. Credit 3 or 6. In this course students are introduced to a variety of non-standard photographic processes.

This course introduces students to the process of designing and creating web sites for the World Wide Web. Beginning with an understanding of the Internet and HTML, the basic language of the web, students move on to work with authoring tools used in building and maintaining websites.

The course concludes with a discussion of challenges facing web designers and the future of this powerful communication tool. This course provides a broad and intensive investigation of visual narratives through photographic representation. Photographic books, journals, installations, slide shows, and mixed media collage will be explored as a means of developing visual fluency and personal expression.

The implications of photographic sequencing and contextual significance will also be an emphasis of this course. This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of contemporary photographic trends. The work of photographers who are currently having an impact on fine art photography will be discussed along with critical analysis of art theory.

Students will be expected to complete a body of photographic work that demonstrates personal conceptual development. The course deals with the fundamentals of gallery exhibition. Emphasis is placed on developing and promoting a personal photographic style. A study is also made of archival techniques. A study is made of the history of photography from its earliest beginnings.

Technical, visual, aesthetic and social aspects are considered. A survey of the History of Animation from early cartoons through contemporary special effects and 3D characters.

The political, artistic and social uses of animation are examined. Design History provides an in-depth study of styles, schools, philosophies, and parallel fields of design from the Industrial Revolution to current day. Emphasis will be on the development of the profession of graphic design and its relationship to commerce and technology. This course provides a chronological survey of the major monuments of painting, sculpture, architecture, textiles, and metalwork from the medieval period to the present.

An undergraduate seminar course concerning problems selected within an area of specialization. This course may be taken for Academic Distinction credit. See Academic Distinction Program in this catalog.

Exploration of traditional painting processes and concepts along with the introduction of non-traditional techniques and materials. Emphasis is placed on skill development and individual exploration of ideas. The focus is on transparent watercolor. Landscape, still life, and the figure are emphasized, along with experimentation.

Advanced problems in printmaking. Special procedures and problems involving further investgation of various printmaking media and formats. An emphasis is placed on creative development. Students will gain leadership and advanced critique skills while mentoring other students, contributing and participating the Workshop in Art Studio and History W. Additionally, student ill be expected to complete an independent studio project. Departmental Approval is required.

This capstone course examines practical applications of exhibition, presentation, documentation, professional writing skills, and career planning specific to studio art. It provides a foundation of practical information to assist undergraduate studio majors in building a successful career after they complete their undergraduate degree. This course should be taken in the senior year, preferably the semester of graduation.

Senior status, departmental approval. Drawing problems with emphasis on the development of personal expressive techniques. Students will visit museums and galleries in the area and assist with exhibitions in the Gaddis Geeslin Gallery in the Department of Art.

The course will cover art handling and installation, registration procedures, and curatorial theories and practices. Students will curate and mount an exhibit, and prepare press materials and publicity as a course project. The exploration of three-dimensional media through the proper use of tools, working processes, and a variety of materials. Emphasis placed on skill development and individual exploration of ideas. A continued exploration of clay with an emphasis on personal expression and discovery.

The course is geared towards those students dedicated to understanding the contemporary issues surrounding the material in relationship to their own work and methodology. Interdisciplinary work is encouraged.

An internship in an approved field and an intense portfolio review. Advanced Typographic Design is an exploration of typography beyond its foundations. Students will investigate the interdependence of type, image and content as they relate to visual communication. Experimental and hand created type will be explored with eh goal of developing a sophisticated typographic voice. This course promotes the inventive and individual solutions to illustrational problems, explores relationships of the image to the text and develops individual skill level using a variety of media, including the computer.

This is an advanced course for web design concepts and processes as well as motion graphics applying Dreamweaver, Flash, Photoshop, and ImageReady applications. The course addresses terminology of the web environment, usability, web file formats, JavaScript, web typography, and web graphics. In addition, this course introduces web-based interactive multimedia including animation, sound, and motion graphics.

Techniques used in creating 3D models for computer animation are studied, including Polygonal modeling, Nurbs and Subdivision surfaces. This course explores the techniques of character animation and rigging using pre-rigged characters and models in 3D computer software. An in depth study of surfaces and shaders including: This course is an in-depth study of 2D Interactive Multimedia Technologies for the creation and distribution of content over the internet and as stand-alone desktop applications.

Coursework will concentrate on the development of interactive audio and video, interactive narratives, and game production. Focus will be on both asset creation and scripting for these types of applications. Readings and discussions will focus on technical, aesthetic, and theoretical issues relating to this evolving art medium. Students in this course will create a work in a specific area of expertise and author a demo reel using this work and refined work from previous courses. A digital portfolio will be created and job searching skills such as presentation and resume building will be taught.

An exploration is made of the creative application of the photographic image as a means of personal expression. Course requirements include the completion of a portfolio of creative work.

This course is designed to assist students in completing a comprehensive, cohesive portfolio and preparing for graduate studies, submission of work to galleries, and other professional practices. Recommended for all graduating seniors. This course is provided to allow the student, under the supervision of a faculty member, to develop specialized skills, to conduct an investigation into an area of special interest.. Regular meetings will be held with the faculty sponsor. Departmental approval is required before student may enroll in this course.

May be repeated or taken concurrently to a maximum of 6 hours. A history of American architecture, painting, and sculpture from the colonial period to the present. This course is a survey of Mexican and Mesoamerican art. Students will study images of prehistoric artifacts and the art and architecture of pre-hispanic cultures including the Olmec, Mixtec, Maya, and Aztec. The impact of the Spanish conquest, the role of art in the Mexican Revolution and the Socialist movement, Arte Popular, the Muralists, late twentieth century and contemporary Mexican art are also explored.

A survey of major artistic movements and artists working in painting, sculpture and architecture. The study of historical and contemporary aspects of major thinking concerning the visual arts. This course examines how the diversity of the United States influences classroom learning. Linguistic dialects, socio-economic status, and cultural diversity are among the factors examined in relation to the educational process. This course examines language acquisition theories and philosophies related to learning a second language from early childhood to adult.

The course also examines the history, rationale, political, community and global perspectives of bilingual education and English as a second language programs.

Emphasis is placed on the principles and implementation of how children learn a language or languages, and how educators can develop academic programs and curriculum plans incorporating local, state, and national policies. Field experiences in K public schools may be required. This course provides an intensive study of the theories of language learning and literacy development for students learning English as a second language. Processes and strategies on the development of oral language and reading in the first and second languages are emphasized.

Field experience in K-6 public schools required. Taken concurrently with BESL This course is designed for persons interested in teaching in a Spanish instructional environment. Terminology specific to the instructional process, curriculum, and community is emphasized. Linguistic and cultural comparisons among different Spanish dialects represented in Texas are examined.

The course is taught in Spanish. Admission to educator preparation program required, field experiences in K public schools included in this course. This course is designed for persons interested in enhancing educational principles related to current bilingual and English as a second language issues. This course identifies appropriate curricula and teaching strategies to teach reading, language arts, mathematics, science and social studies to second language learners.

Principles of current content area curriculum and instructional theory as related to language learning in a bilingual classroom are studied. This course is taught in Spanish. Field experiences in K-6 schools required. Admission to Student Teaching program.

A general course designed to cover all areas relating to contemporary ecological problems. Topics include air, water, and soil pollution; radiation, limnology, climate, pesticides, wastes, and land conservation. This course is designed for non-science majors to help them meet their General Education science requirement, and as in introductory course in environmental science for ENVR majors. BIOL cannot be applied to either a major or a minor in Biology.

Includes a 2 hour lab. Presentation for the non-science major of biological concepts and topical subjects related to science methods, embryological development, reproduction, genetics, evolution, human organ systems, disease, and environmental biology.

Ethical considerations of reproduction and birth control, genetic engineering, environmental pollution and population control will be included. This course is designed for non-science majors to help them meet their General Education science requirement and cannot be applied to either a major or a minor in Biology. General principles of botany are presented. Emphasis is placed on morphology, taxonomy, genetics, physiology, and ecology of plants in an evolutionary and ecological context.

Includes a 3 hour lab. General principles of zoology are presented in an evolutionary context. Emphasis is placed on the anatomy, behavior, and ecology of animals.

Students are introduced to evolutionary and ecological principles of biology. The course focuses on the nature of science as a reliable method of acquiring knowledge about the natural world. Students will learn how to apply key scientific facts, concepts, laws and theories to distinguish science from non-science, bad science, and pseudoscience by analyzing a variety of claims and case studies.

By employing an innovative, interdisciplinary approach to science education, this course is designed to increase science literacy and critical thinking skills for introductory-level students. Students must enroll concurrently in the corresponding lab for this course. An integrated conceptual study of the biochemical, molecular, and cellular processes that support life from a health and disease perspective. The molecular mechanisms that regulate cell function, the molecular signaling processes that form the basis of integrated function and the response to disease, and the mechanisms underlying inherited traits and genetic disease will be presented.

Emphasis is placed on defining and characterizing normal cell function. This course may not be used by Biology majors or minors as credit toward graduation. This course deals with structure and form of the human body. It includes studies of cells, tissues, and organ systems. Registration is primarily for students in prenursing or majors in kinesiology or health. Credit in this course cannot be applied to either a major or minor in Biology.

This course will help students identify and understand the function of several important human organ systems and how these systems maintain homeostasis. Topics and the mechanisms involving circulation, digestion, metabolism, muscle action and respiration will receive the most emphasis.

This course is designed to emphasize a clinical knowledge of physiology and techniques required by students studying nursing, physical therapy, and related health fields. An introduction to microorganisms, their morphology, growth requirements, methods of culture, and the manner in which they affect health.

Reactions of the body toward pathogenic organisms and the principles of immunity and chemotherapy are considered. Credit in this course cannot be applied to a major or minor in Biology. An introduction to the study of cells, including scientific methods, biochemistry, metabolism, cell energetics, membranes, cellular evolution, DNA, protein synthesis, the cytoskeleton, cell division, and the cellular basis of inheritance, with emphasis on the development of problem solving skills.

A study of the characteristics and classification of plants emphasizing systematic techniques. Focus on identification of the more common plant families allows transfer of knowledge to other regions of the country and world. This course provides students with a first-hand off-campus opportunity to experience biology in a specialized setting.

Potential settings include both domestic and international sites, and may consist of particular ecological regions, biological reserves, field data collection sites, laboratories, and clinics. Course prerequisites will be tailored to the specific off-campus course offering. Field studies are an integral part of the laboratory.

Three-hour laboratory and field work. This course deals with the study of structure and function of the human body. The structure of various organ systems are discussed and their function as organs and systems described. Two-hour laboratory as needed.

A study of representative vertebrates, their anatomy, ontogeny, and phylogeny. General course dealing with principal life processes of plants.

Topics include photosynthesis, respiration, nutrition, flowering, dormancy, hormones, growth, and development. The study of the primary mechanisms by which autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms function. Important fundamental aspects of cellular, regulatory, and systemic physiology are presented emphasizing the functional aspect of living systems at the cellular and molecular levels. Students are expected to develop an integrated understanding of the areas presented and recognize the interdependence of these mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis.

Study is made of the physical bases of inheritance and principles of heredity and variation. Topics include Mendelian genetics, cytogenetics, molecular basis of genetics, gene expression and regulation, and DNA technologies.

A study of basic physiological systems and underlying system dysfunctions associated with human disease processes across the life span. Relationships between etiologic agents and their consequence to human form and function will be stressed. Critical thinking processes integrating symptoms, treatment and prognosis will be applied to physiological perspectives.

Four hours lecture per week. The history and basic principles, philosophy and concepts of wildlife management as they relate to habitats, people, and the problems associated with their interactions. A study of basic principles of entomology as related to modern principles of insect pest management. Included are discussions of the biology and control of economically important insects in Texas.

Collections of insects are made. Not open to students with credit in BIOL Two hours lecture and two hours laboratory as needed. An introduction to microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi. Major areas considered are morphology, physiology, genetics, and pathology. Microorganisms are studied in relation to soil, water, food, industrial processes, and disease. This is a study of the early development of representative vertebrates from fertilization until differentiation of organs has been completed.

A study of animal tissues with emphasis on human materials. Identification and preparatory techniques are stressed. Three-hour laboratory as needed. Writing enhanced as needed. Survey of the plant kingdom with emphasis on morphogenesis, comparative structure and life cycles of representative plant forms. This course is designed to allow selected, advanced students in specific areas of biology to participate directly in biological research. The research project will be developed jointly by the student and a faculty mentor, and must be pre-approved by the Chair of the Department of Biological Sciences.

Biology major, minimum Junior standing. See Academic Distinction Program in this Catalog. This course of faculty-led study is designed to provide exposure of undergraduate students to new biological topics and concepts in a course setting, prior to that course's formal Department, College, and University course adoption. This course may be repeated for different Special Topics different courses. Discussions of current literature in the biological sciences. Required of senior Biology majors.

Biology major, Senior standing. Discussions of current research presented by faculty participating in the Department of Biological Sciences weekly seminar series.

Nucleotides: Part of the Structure of DNA