Strategies of Diving Mammals


Aquatic respiration
C Air capillaries closely associated with blood capillaries arrows in a chicken lung. The tongues of many animals are prehensile, particularly that of the giraffe. The solid lines represent thoracic position at the end of expiration while the dotted lines show the thoracic position at the end of inspiration Source: Terrestrial An animals that spends it's whole life or the majority of it's life on the ground. Birds that mate using this method touch their cloacae together, in some species for only a few seconds, sufficient time for sperm to be transferred from the male to the female. The bioengineering dilemma in the structural and functional design of the blood-gas barrier.

Reference Articles

Comparative Animal Respiration

Herbivores eat plants, carnivores eat meat and omnivores eat both. A mammal has a highly developed brain, nerves and sensory organs such as eyes, nose, mouth, ears and touch. A mammal has a four chambered heart, blood vessels and blood within their system. A mammal has lungs and breathes in oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide.

A mammal reproduces sexually with the female being fertilized by the male internally. Mammals have live birth and care for their young for quite a time after birth. A mammal gas kidneys and is covered with skin. In marsupials and a few birds , the genital tract is separate from the anus, but a trace of the original cloaca does remain externally.

Unlike other marsupials, marsupial moles have a true cloaca, [11] a fact that has been used to argue against a marsupial identity for these mammals. Most adult placental mammals have no remaining trace of the cloaca. In the embryo, the embryonic cloaca divides into a posterior region that becomes part of the anus, and an anterior region that has different fates depending on the sex of the individual: Being placental animals, humans only have an embryonic cloaca, which is split up into separate tracts during the development of the urinary and reproductive organs.

However, a few human congenital disorders result in persons being born with a cloaca, including persistent cloaca and sirenomelia mermaid syndrome. In reptiles, the cloaca consists of the urodeum , proctodeum , and coprodeum. This is where reproductive activity occurs. Some turtles , especially those specialized in diving, are highly reliant on cloacal respiration during dives. At night, many of these species emerge from the anus of the sea cucumber in search of food.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cloaca disambiguation. Hormones, Brain, and Behavior. University of Chicago Press. Ewer 11 December Chemical cues, hibernation and reproduction in female short-beaked echidnas Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus: In Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 13 pp. A spore produced by meiosis , which is therefore haploid and gives rise by division to haploid daughter cells , or to a haploid individual such as the gametophyte of a seed plant.

A group of tyrosine -derived compounds found in eukaryotes. Variation in melanin genes has its most evident effect in color variation. Eumelanin, which is brownish black, is the most common form. Also common is pheomelanin, which is reddish brown. Dark-colored due to the presence of higher levels of melanin than those seen in ordinary specimens. Melanin-containing organelles present in eukaryotic cells.

Difference in charge between the cytoplasm and the fluid outside the cell; due to differences in the distribution of ions within and outside the cell.

The membranes enclosing the spinal cord and brain. Any of the tough, slick pads of tissue filling the joint-space between bones. The monthly bloody discharge occurring in women after puberty. Plant cells that remain embryonic , and that are therefore mitotically active, allowing plants to go on growing indefinitely as long as they live "indeterminate growth". Of or relating to meristem.

Discrete variation that can be counted, as number of bristles, fingers, or body segments. A mode of asexual reproduction seen in certain protozoan parasites. In merogony, the feeding-stage form trophozoite of the parasite increases in size while its nucleus and other organelles divide repeatedly without cytokinesis.

Then this enlarged, reproducing form schizont ruptures, releasing merozoites. This mode of reproduction is characteristic of apicomplexan parasites. In the life cycle of certain protozoan parasites , a stage produced by merogony. Organ-suspending membranes found in the body cavities of vertebrates. An early embryo 's middle cell layer; develops into the muscles, skeleton, kidneys, spleen, gonads, and much of the circulatory system.

The jelly separating the body walls of cnidarians and sponges. The mesentery supporting the ileum. The mid-layer of a leaf between the upper and lower epidermises; portion of a leaf where photosynthesis occurs.

The second of the three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon. It lasted from RNA that serves as a template for protein synthesis. Of, pertaining to, or involving metabolism. A series of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes , occurring within an organism. The product of each successive reaction is the substrate of the next. The chemical processes, taken as a whole, occurring within an organism.

A product of a metabolic pathway. To transform a chemical compound into some other compound s via a metabolic pathway. Pertaining to the bones within the palm of the hand or of the equivalent region in an animal.

The transformation of a larva into the adult form. An essential amino acid. Small rodents belonging to the genus Mus. They are major vectors of disease. Of or pertaining to microbes. The aggregate of microorganisms residing in an organism or in a particular locale within an organism. Strands of actin present in almost all eukaryotic cells. Microfilaments are present in undulipodia and cilia, and make up part of the cytoskeleton.

They act alone or with myosin to bring about contraction of the cell. A fossil too small to be inspected without the aid of a microscope less than about 4mm in diameter. Examples are the tests of microorganisms and pollen grains.

Injection of a DNA solution into a cell by means of a microcapillary pipet. Organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microscopically small plastic particles created when plastic waste breaks down into ever smaller fragments during the course of chemical and physical aging processes. In an aquatic environment, due to their size, microplastics pose a risk of being eaten by small shrimps, fish larvae and other organisms at the bottom of the food chain.

Invisible to the naked eye, but visible through the use of a microscope. Condition of having small eyes. An instrument for preparing thin slices of tissue.

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