Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Baby Boy Names

Who needs vitamin B-12 shots and why?
Those photos are worth more than a thousand words. In summary, resveratrol is a foreign substance which is hoped to be an activator of SIRT1 and other sirtuins linked to aging. I only took half of the recommended dosage just to be extra careful and drank plenty of water. Concurrent use of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors such as imatinib may cause hypothyroidism. Carcinoma Sarcoma Blastoma Papilloma Adenoma. It does not appear to be an anti-aging supplement scam whatsoever. A friend suggested biotin mg.

Everything you Need to Know About Armour Thyroid

Armour Thyroid Medication Guide: Weight Loss, Dosing, Side Effects & More

I mentioned that armour thyroid is unique among thyroid medications so let me explain a little bit further here. Armour thyroid is ranked among a class of thyroid medications known as Natural Desiccated thyroid medications. These medications are created by desiccating or crushing up the thyroid glands of certain animals - in this case pigs. Pharmaceutical companies then encapsulate the desiccated pig thyroid gland and standardize the hormones in each capsule and humans then take it.

Normally you wouldn't think twice about this, but it matters when you take thyroid medication. Because the conventional treatment for patients with hypothyroidism is to supplement with only the inactive thyroid hormone T4. Physicians, such as endocrinologists, give patients T4 only thyroid medications because they assume that each patient will be able to perfectly convert the inactive thyroid hormone T4 into the active thyroid hormone T3. Your body lives in harmony and functions optimally when it can create the amount of T4 and T3 that it needs on a daily basis.

Your body has created a special mechanism to "control" the amount of thyroid hormone that it needs on a daily basis through a system known as thyroid hormone conversion. In this system your body takes the inactive thyroid hormone T4 and it can activate it by turning it into T3.

It can also "inactive" it if it doesn't need any extra thyroid hormone by turning it into reverse T3. This is just thyroid physiology Armour thyroid is special when compared to levothyroxine because it contains at least two types of thyroid hormone: Which means armour thyroid may more closely approximate what your body produces in a natural and healthy state.

I made this point 1 because I think it is probably the most important feature which separates armour from levothyroxine but it certainly isn't the only one: Another very important beneficial aspect of taking Armour thyroid is that you are getting more than just the combination of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones. In current physiology we give all of the credit to T3 because it is the most biological thyroid compound floating around in your blood.

These other thyroid hormones known as T1 and T2 also exist in your body but they don't get much credit because they are considered to be "less biologically active" than T4 and T3. But emerging research is showing that these compounds are still important nonetheless, even if we don't completely understand what they do or how they work. It would be silly of us to assume that simply because we don't know what they do or how they work that they are unimportant, but that is kind of the mentality that we have when it comes to the human body.

No matter how you look at it though there may be some individuals who benefit from the "extra" thyroid hormones T1 and T2 that come with the whole Armour thyroid package. These hormones along with probably other enzymes and hormone precursors are present in the thyroid gland of animals and therefore make it into the pharmaceutical medication as it is prepared. These extra hormones may not be of benefit to each and every person but it is certainly possible that patients who don't have a functioning thyroid such as those who have had it surgically removed may benefit from the extra T1 and T2 that comes in this medication.

Patients who still have a thyroid gland that functions may be able to produce T1 and T2 in sufficient amounts to not notice a difference, but either way it's worth discussing. I mentioned previously that armour thyroid is more "potent" and more "active" than T4 medications such as Levothyroxine and Synthroid and part of this is because it contains the active T3 hormone but another important part is that it doesn't require as much activation. This process is controlled by various factors including your genetics, so it may come as no surprise that some people are "better" at converting thyroid hormone than others.

New research has shown that there are some existing genes known as SNP's that may alter the efficiency of this conversion process.

This means that some of you out there are just not very good at converting T4 into T3 while some of you out there are incredible at doing it.

Because Armour thyroid contains T3 it can directly bypass this conversion process which allows the body to use some of the thyroid hormone immediately after ingestion. If we could reliably test for these genetic differences we would be able to more easily determine what kind of thyroid medication that each person needs. Since this testing is not mainstream yet! When you lay out the benefits of Armour thyroid and compare it to T4 only medications it's easy to come to the conclusion that Armour thyroid may be superior, but is this really true?

I wouldn't jump to that conclusion right away, but there are certainly some reasons that you should consider using Armour thyroid. This is not a complete list but instead focuses on our current understanding of thyroid physiology, genetics and thyroid conversion and attempts to come up with logical reasons why some patients might feel better on armour thyroid compared to other medications.

While many patients report almost immediate improvement in their hypothyroid symptoms when switching to armour thyroid there are plenty of patients who also report negative symptoms more on that below.

Instead of focusing on which is the "best" thyroid medication it's more helpful to determine through testing and symptom management which is the best thyroid medication for YOUR body. This approach will help you achieve long lasting results and help improve your symptoms more than any other. One of the biggest and perhaps more important question that most patients have when considering armour thyroid is this: Most people assume when they switch to armour thyroid that their extra weight will magically start shedding off While Armour Thyroid is a great medication that will probably help reduce your symptoms even if it doesn't help you lose weight it usually isn't enough for weight loss by itself.

After all - If weight loss were that simple, then Doctors would be prescribing low doses of Armour to every patient! Why this happens is a long story but the short version is that your thyroid is probably only contributing to about pounds of extra weight you may be carrying right now.

If you have more than that to lose there is a good chance your extra weight is from something else entirely. While your thyroid certainly contributes at least initially to weight gain, it almost always isn't the ONLY contributing factor. I've discussed the thyroid hormone obesity myth in detail and you can read more about this unique approach to weight loss in thyroid patients here. If a patient is hypothyroid, meaning their thyroid gland is not producing enough thyroid hormone naturally, then they must undergo thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

For various reasons physicians may be relying on tests that may not accurately identify the status of thyroid hormone in the body. You can read more about this idea in detail here. Relevant to this article it's important to understand that dosing based on the TSH alone may not be the most accurate way to manage armour thyroid dosing.

Another reason that physicians may not be adequately dosing certain patients is because they are unfamiliar with dosing thyroid medications that contain T3. As we've discussed previously, Armour thyroid contains a combination of T4 the inactive thyroid hormone and T3 the active thyroid hormone.

The portion of T3 thyroid hormone in each "grain" which is a unit of armour thyroid dosing is actually still quite small: Doctors know that T3 it is approximately 3. This means that when transitioning from T4 only medication to armour thyroid many patients are usually under treated, especially if physicians rely solely on the TSH as an indicator of thyroid status in the body. Other factors such as your sex hormone binding globulin may be a better indicator of tissue levels of thyroid hormone.

It's also important to note that many providers aren't as comfortable dosing Armour Thyroid as they are levothyroxine and so they will intentionally under dose patients because they are concerned about side effects. Even if you assume that T3 is 3x more potent which isn't the best indicator of biological activity in the body then you still come up short with this conversion - let's break down the math:.

So suggesting that 1 grain of T4 which equals about 65mcg is a substitute for mcg of T4 is not necessarily a fair assumption. It may be no wonder why some patients who "transition" to Armour thyroid often feel symptomatically worse during the transition. I've even had patients who report that when they switch to armour thyroid their TSH increases and the physician then states that armour thyroid is unreliable.

In reality it may be more accurate that the patient was under dosed which resulted in a hypothyroid state and a subsequent increase in the TSH.

This change is not necessarily indicative of the failure of armour thyroid but more a failure with the conversion and dosing process. If you are transitioning from a T4 only medication do NOT start yourself off at the maximum dose of Armour. If you dose your Armour too quickly you are likely to end up with side effects from the T3: Heart palpitations, Anxiety, Heat intolerance, etc. Thyroid dosing is highly individualized and depends on factors such as your current metabolic rate, your sensitivity to T3 and your peripheral thyroid conversion status.

This means that you can never use a " dosing calculator " to simply determine what your dose should be, instead you may need to use a combination of trial and error along with frequent laboratory testing.

Along this same vein it's also possible that your dose of T4 may be either too high or too low relative to your dose of T3. Meaning the amount of T3 in each grain of Armour is always the same this is a good thing from a pharmaceutical and consistency standpoint, but may be a problem due to the inability to titrate individual T3 and T4 doses.

These conditions are characterized by physiologic changes in which the patient may require higher doses of T3 to saturate cellular receptors and allow thyroid hormone to get into the cells. If you fall into any of the categories above AND you aren't losing weight on Armour thyroid then you may want to consider adjusting the individual dosing of T3 and T4 in your medication. In some cases this may be as easy as adding a small dose of T3, in others it may mean switching to individual T4 and T3 prescriptions.

One problem with armour thyroid and NDT in general is the static dosing in each individual grain of hormone. Each grain gives you 38mcg of T4 and 9mcg of T3.

This is ok for some patients but doesn't allow for altering individual dosing of the T4 and T3 if necessary. Patients with high stress , high levels of inflammation, leptin resistance , insulin resistance , etc. Some studies even suggest that temporary supraphysiologic dosing of T3 may help to overcome these hormone imbalances, provided it is used safely and correctly.

In my experience and if used safely lowering T4 dosing and increasing T3 dosing provides improved weight loss and improved lipid metabolism in a subset of patients. This is also confirmed with studies which have shown that transitioning from T4 to T3 dosing based off of pituitary and TSH testing improves all of these markers. In some patients dropping armour thyroid total dosing and adding T3 can be sufficient to improve symptoms and provide improved weight loss without causing negative sypmtoms.

Liothyronine , Cytomel or SR T3. Leptin is a hormone that is pumped out by your fat cells yes they pump out hormones! As they increase they are supposed to tell your brain to increase metabolism and start burning off that extra fat you just gained. The presence of leptin resistance creates hormonal havoc which results in weight loss resistance despite changes to your diet and to the amount that you exercise.

And, to make matters worse - high levels of leptin actually decrease T4 to T3 conversion in the body. Leptin levels can be tested easily in the serum and fasting leptin levels higher than indicate the presence of leptin resistance.

Patients with leptin resistance generally require higher levels of T3 only medications to help reduce the T4 to reverse T3 conversion that occurs with this condition. It's important to note that leptin resistance is generally a late finding and usually indicates that heavy metabolic damage has already occurred. Leptin resistance is often accompanied by insulin resistance and thyroid resistance all three conditions are caused by the same thing.

To see a case study example treatment plan please refer to this post. Beyond armour thyroid there are other types of natural desiccated thyroid such as Naturethroid and WP Thyroid.

While it's true 1 grain of armour thyroid contains the same amount of active thyroid hormone T3 and T4 as a grain of WP thyroid or Naturethroid - these medications differ in the inactive ingredients that they contain. And it is these inactive ingredients that may cause certain people to respond well or not to these medications due to how they react to these inactive ingredients. In addition these inactive ingredients may alter the breakdown and digestion of which then alters the absorption of thyroid hormone in the body.

Some individuals who take NDT and armour thyroid may experience negative side effects while taking this medication which they may wrongly be attributing to the active thyroid hormone. Instead it may be possible that they would do much better by switching to a different formulation rather than switching back to T4 medication. Using the table below you can see that the NDT form of thyroid hormone with the least amount of ingredients is WP thyroid - though this doesn't necessarily mean that it is the "best".

These changes in inactive ingredients help to explain why some patients react poorly to Armour thyroid with symptoms like headaches, worsening fatigue or rashes - only to find that these symptoms completely resolve upon switching to naturethroid.

Again it's not the difference in the concentration of thyroid hormone in each individual medication but most likely a reflection of digestion and absorption. You can think about methylcellulose as a glue which holds on tight to the thyroid hormone component of the medication and in order for your body to absorb and properly utilize your intestinal tract must separate the methylcellulose from the active thyroid hormone.

Unfortunately many patients with hypothyroidism also have gastrointestinal issues including low stomach acid. This may result in decreased absorption of thyroid hormone or cause a "delayed" release of the medication into the blood stream.

In general patients with GI related issues may do better on WP thyroid or Tirosint which both have fewer inactive ingredients and absorption tends to be better. If you aren't familiar with Reverse T3 please read this article. It should come as no surprise then to hear that you don't want high levels of Reverse T3 because it competes for binding with T3 which creates tissue level hypothyroidism or thyroid resistance.

In general, the higher Reverse T3 the more hypothyroid you will feel and the less active thyroid hormone is in your body unless the Reverse T3 is compensatory due to supraphysiologic levels of free T3. High levels of reverse T3 may lead you to experience weight gain, a slower than normal metabolism and other hypothyroid symptoms.

Because T4 has the option to turn into T3 or Reverse T3 we need to concern ourselves with what causes the body to preferentially create more reverse T3. It turns out that many conditions may be sabotaging your thyroid conversion and the presence of these conditions may be causing your body to turn T4 into reverse T3. As Reverse T3 levels climb your cells will have more difficulty taking up active thyroid hormone.

This leads to a situation where you will have the symptoms of hypothyroidism but your lab tests may be "normal". Your temperature will drop, your metabolism will drop and your appetite will increase in an attempt to compensate. Because high levels of reverse T3 can be caused by different factors, the best way to treat it is to identify the cause and focus on that issue. If you have high levels of insulin - your focus should be on reversing this condition.

If your leptin is too high - then you should undergo therapies designed to reduce leptin resistance. If you suffer from chronic inflammation then you may need to address whatever issue is causing inflammation in your body. If you can identify and treat these conditions then your body will naturally be able to convert T4 into T3 which is exactly what you want. You can learn more about addressing and treating reverse T3 in this post.

Dosing armour thyroid is not much different than using traditional or conventional thyroid medications such as Levothyroxine or Synthroid. The primary difficulties come when transitioning from an existing thyroid medication over to armour thyroid. If you fall into this category then you need to make sure that you are "converting" your dose correctly as we outlined in the beginning of this post.

Many physicians will tend to underdose you on the transition because they aren't familiar with using medications that contain T3.

This underdosing may have the unintended consequence of exacerbating at least temporarily hypothyroid symptoms. Instead make sure you re-evaluate your lab tests and determine if you are on a sufficient dose or if you need a higher dose. Each person will require a unique amount of thyroid hormone but the average dose of armour thyroid is somwhere between grains or mg. Armour thyroid can be dosed in miligrams or in grains and it's important to understand the difference.

If you use the calculation above then 2 grains is equal to mg of armour thyroid or mcg of T4 equivalents if you convert the 18mcg of T3 into T4. This is helpful because it can help you determine how much armour thyroid to start with and what kind of dose you should be looking to hit. As a general rule of thumb though not always accurate certain patients tend to need higher doses of thyroid hormone.

Patients in this category include those with higher metabolic demands those with a higher metabolism , patients who are overweight or who have a higher than average BMI and patients who may be taking medications that block or limit thyroid hormone action. Some types of chemotherapy are gonadotoxic and may cause infertility.

Female infertility by chemotherapy appears to be secondary to premature ovarian failure by loss of primordial follicles. People may choose between several methods of fertility preservation prior to chemotherapy, including cryopreservation of semen, ovarian tissue, oocytes, or embryos. Potential protective or attenuating agents include GnRH analogs , where several studies have shown a protective effect in vivo in humans, but some studies show no such effect.

Sphingosinephosphate S1P has shown similar effect, but its mechanism of inhibiting the sphingomyelin apoptotic pathway may also interfere with the apoptosis action of chemotherapy drugs. In chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a study of people conditioned with cyclophosphamide alone for severe aplastic anemia came to the result that ovarian recovery occurred in all women younger than 26 years at time of transplantation, but only in five of 16 women older than 26 years.

Chemotherapy is teratogenic during pregnancy , especially during the first trimester , to the extent that abortion usually is recommended if pregnancy in this period is found during chemotherapy. In males previously having undergone chemotherapy or radiotherapy, there appears to be no increase in genetic defects or congenital malformations in their children conceived after therapy.

Between 30 and 40 percent of people undergoing chemotherapy experience chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy CIPN , a progressive, enduring, and often irreversible condition, causing pain, tingling, numbness and sensitivity to cold, beginning in the hands and feet and sometimes progressing to the arms and legs.

Though the symptoms are mainly sensory, in some cases motor nerves and the autonomic nervous system are affected. The platinum-based drugs are the exception; with these drugs, sensation may continue to deteriorate for several months after the end of treatment.

Some people receiving chemotherapy report fatigue or non-specific neurocognitive problems, such as an inability to concentrate; this is sometimes called post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment , referred to as "chemo brain" in popular and social media.

In particularly large tumors and cancers with high white cell counts , such as lymphomas , teratomas , and some leukemias , some people develop tumor lysis syndrome. The rapid breakdown of cancer cells causes the release of chemicals from the inside of the cells. Following this, high levels of uric acid , potassium and phosphate are found in the blood. High levels of phosphate induce secondary hypoparathyroidism, resulting in low levels of calcium in the blood. This causes kidney damage and the high levels of potassium can cause cardiac arrhythmia.

Although prophylaxis is available and is often initiated in people with large tumors, this is a dangerous side-effect that can lead to death if left untreated. Cardiotoxicity heart damage is especially prominent with the use of anthracycline drugs doxorubicin , epirubicin , idarubicin , and liposomal doxorubicin. The cause of this is most likely due to the production of free radicals in the cell and subsequent DNA damage. Other chemotherapeutic agents that cause cardiotoxicity, but at a lower incidence, are cyclophosphamide , docetaxel and clofarabine.

Hepatotoxicity liver damage can be caused by many cytotoxic drugs. The susceptibility of an individual to liver damage can be altered by other factors such as the cancer itself, viral hepatitis , immunosuppression and nutritional deficiency.

The liver damage can consist of damage to liver cells, hepatic sinusoidal syndrome obstruction of the veins in the liver , cholestasis where bile does not flow from the liver to the intestine and liver fibrosis.

Nephrotoxicity kidney damage can be caused by tumor lysis syndrome and also due direct effects of drug clearance by the kidneys. Different drugs will affect different parts of the kidney and the toxicity may be asymptomatic only seen on blood or urine tests or may cause acute renal failure. Ototoxicity damage to the inner ear is a common side effect of platinum based drugs that can produce symptoms such as dizziness and vertigo. Less common side-effects include red skin erythema , dry skin, damaged fingernails, a dry mouth xerostomia , water retention , and sexual impotence.

Some medications can trigger allergic or pseudoallergic reactions. Specific chemotherapeutic agents are associated with organ-specific toxicities, including cardiovascular disease e. Chemotherapy does not always work, and even when it is useful, it may not completely destroy the cancer. People frequently fail to understand its limitations. In one study of people who had been newly diagnosed with incurable, stage 4 cancer , more than two-thirds of people with lung cancer and more than four-fifths of people with colorectal cancer still believed that chemotherapy was likely to cure their cancer.

The blood—brain barrier poses an obstacle to delivery of chemotherapy to the brain. This is because the brain has an extensive system in place to protect it from harmful chemicals. Drug transporters can pump out drugs from the brain and brain's blood vessel cells into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood circulation. These transporters pump out most chemotherapy drugs, which reduces their efficacy for treatment of brain tumors. Only small lipophilic alkylating agents such as lomustine or temozolomide are able to cross this blood—brain barrier.

Blood vessels in tumors are very different from those seen in normal tissues. As a tumor grows, tumor cells furthest away from the blood vessels become low in oxygen hypoxic. To counteract this they then signal for new blood vessels to grow.

The newly formed tumor vasculature is poorly formed and does not deliver an adequate blood supply to all areas of the tumor. This leads to issues with drug delivery because many drugs will be delivered to the tumor by the circulatory system.

Resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in chemotherapeutic drugs. There are a few possible causes of resistance in cancer, one of which is the presence of small pumps on the surface of cancer cells that actively move chemotherapy from inside the cell to the outside. Cancer cells produce high amounts of these pumps, known as p-glycoprotein , in order to protect themselves from chemotherapeutics.

Research on p-glycoprotein and other such chemotherapy efflux pumps is currently ongoing. Medications to inhibit the function of p-glycoprotein are undergoing investigation, but due to toxicities and interactions with anti-cancer drugs their development has been difficult. This overcomes the effect of drugs that reduce the expression of genes involved in replication. With more copies of the gene, the drug can not prevent all expression of the gene and therefore the cell can restore its proliferative ability.

Cancer cells can also cause defects in the cellular pathways of apoptosis programmed cell death. As most chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells in this manner, defective apoptosis allows survival of these cells, making them resistant. Many chemotherapy drugs also cause DNA damage, which can be repaired by enzymes in the cell that carry out DNA repair. Upregulation of these genes can overcome the DNA damage and prevent the induction of apoptosis. Mutations in genes that produce drug target proteins, such as tubulin , can occur which prevent the drugs from binding to the protein, leading to resistance to these types of drugs.

Targeted therapies are a relatively new class of cancer drugs that can overcome many of the issues seen with the use of cytotoxics. They are divided into two groups: The massive toxicity seen with the use of cytotoxics is due to the lack of cell specificity of the drugs.

They will kill any rapidly dividing cell, tumor or normal. Targeted therapies are designed to affect cellular proteins or processes that are utilised by the cancer cells. This allows a high dose to cancer tissues with a relatively low dose to other tissues.

Although the side effects are often less severe than that seen of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, life-threatening effects can occur. Initially, the targeted therapeutics were supposed to be solely selective for one protein. Now it is clear that there is often a range of protein targets that the drug can bind. An example target for targeted therapy is the protein produced by the Philadelphia chromosome , a genetic lesion found commonly in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

This fusion protein has enzyme activity that can be inhibited by imatinib , a small molecule drug. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells coupled with malignant behaviour: In the broad sense, most chemotherapeutic drugs work by impairing mitosis cell division , effectively targeting fast-dividing cells.

As these drugs cause damage to cells, they are termed cytotoxic. They prevent mitosis by various mechanisms including damaging DNA and inhibition of the cellular machinery involved in cell division.

As chemotherapy affects cell division, tumors with high growth rates such as acute myelogenous leukemia and the aggressive lymphomas , including Hodgkin's disease are more sensitive to chemotherapy, as a larger proportion of the targeted cells are undergoing cell division at any time.

Malignancies with slower growth rates, such as indolent lymphomas, tend to respond to chemotherapy much more modestly. Cells from the immune system also make crucial contributions to the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy drugs are used in diseases other than cancer, such as in autoimmune disorders, [] and noncancerous plasma cell dyscrasia.

In some cases they are often used at lower doses, which means that the side effects are minimized, [] while in other cases doses similar to ones used to treat cancer are used. Methotrexate is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis RA , [] psoriasis , [] ankylosing spondylitis [] and multiple sclerosis.

Recently, bortezomid in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone has also shown promise as a treatment for AL amyloidosis. Other drugs used to treat myeloma such as lenalidomide have shown promise in treating AL amyloidosis.

Chemotherapy drugs are also used in conditioning regimens prior to bone marow transplant hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Conditioning regimens are used to suppress the recipient's immune system in order to allow a transplant to engraft. Cyclophosphamide is a common cytotoxic drug used in this manner, and is often used in conjunction with total body irradiation. Chemotherapeutic drugs may be used at high doses to permanently remove the recipient's bone marrow cells myeloablative conditioning or at lower doses that will prevent permanent bone marrow loss non-myeloablative and reduced intensity conditioning.

Healthcare workers exposed to antineoplastic agents take precautions to keep their exposure to a minimum. In addition, physicians and operating room personnel may also be exposed as they treat people. Hospital staff, such as shipping and receiving personnel, custodial workers, laundry workers, and waste handlers, all have potential exposure to these drugs during the course of their work.

The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents.

Several classification schemes have been used to subdivide the medicines used for cancer into several different types. The first use of small-molecule drugs to treat cancer was in the early 20th century, although the specific chemicals first used were not originally intended for that purpose.

Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was discovered to be a potent suppressor of hematopoiesis blood production. The survivors were later found to have very low white blood cell counts. The first chemotherapy drug to be developed from this line of research was mustine.

Since then, many other drugs have been developed to treat cancer, and drug development has exploded into a multibillion-dollar industry, although the principles and limitations of chemotherapy discovered by the early researchers still apply.

The word chemotherapy without a modifier usually refers to cancer treatment, but its historical meaning was broader. In today's usage , the sense "any treatment of disease with drugs" is often expressed with the word pharmacotherapy. The top 10 best-selling in terms of revenue cancer drugs of Specially targeted delivery vehicles aim to increase effective levels of chemotherapy for tumor cells while reducing effective levels for other cells.

This should result in an increased tumor kill or reduced toxicity or both. Antibody-drug conjugates ADCs comprise an antibody , drug and a linker between them.

The antibody will be targeted at a preferentially expressed protein in the tumour cells known as a tumor antigen or on cells that the tumor can utilise, such as blood vessel endothelial cells.

They bind to the tumor antigen and are internalised, where the linker releases the drug into the cell. These specially targeted delivery vehicles vary in their stability, selectivity, and choice of target, but, in essence, they all aim to increase the maximum effective dose that can be delivered to the tumor cells.

The first approved drug of this type was gemtuzumab ozogamicin Mylotarg , released by Wyeth now Pfizer. The drug was approved to treat acute myeloid leukemia , but has now been withdrawn from the market because the drug did not meet efficacy targets in further clinical trials. Nanoparticles are 1— nanometer nm sized particles that can promote tumor selectivity and aid in delivering low- solubility drugs.

Nanoparticles can be targeted passively or actively. Passive targeting exploits the difference between tumor blood vessels and normal blood vessels. Active targeting uses biological molecules antibodies , proteins , DNA and receptor ligands to preferentially target the nanoparticles to the tumor cells. There are many types of nanoparticle delivery systems, such as silica , polymers , liposomes and magnetic particles.

Nanoparticles made of magnetic material can also be used to concentrate agents at tumor sites using an externally applied magnetic field. Electrochemotherapy is the combined treatment in which injection of a chemotherapeutic drug is followed by application of high-voltage electric pulses locally to the tumor. The treatment enables the chemotherapeutic drugs, which otherwise cannot or hardly go through the membrane of cells such as bleomycin and cisplatin , to enter the cancer cells. Hence, greater effectiveness of antitumor treatment is achieved.

Clinical electrochemotherapy has been successfully used for treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors irrespective of their histological origin. Hyperthermia therapy is heat treatment for cancer that can be a powerful tool when used in combination with chemotherapy thermochemotherapy or radiation for the control of a variety of cancers. The heat can be applied locally to the tumor site, which will dilate blood vessels to the tumor, allowing more chemotherapeutic medication to enter the tumor.

Additionally, the tumor cell membrane will become more porous, further allowing more of the chemotherapeutic medicine to enter the tumor cell. Hyperthermia has also been shown to help prevent or reverse "chemo-resistance.

In regard to the potential benefit that drug-resistant cells can be recruited for effective therapy by combining chemotherapy with hyperthermia, it was important to show that chemoresistance against several anticancer drugs e. Chemotherapy is used in veterinary medicine similar to how it is used in human medicine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about cancer treatment. For antimicrobial chemotherapy, see Antimicrobial chemotherapy. For the journal, see Chemotherapy journal.

For the journal, see Anti-Cancer Drugs. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.

A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cold mittens and wine coolers are placed on her hands and feet to reduce harm to her nails.

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