An afterburner for a fusion engine is a way to shift gears. If you use active cooling, with fluid filled heat pipes pumping the heat away to radiators, you could reduce the size of the drive bell somewhat, maybe by a factor of two or three. It is easy to keep in most aquariums and adapts to most lighting. As they burrow and dig through the aquarium substrate, they clean and aerate the bottom. I sit on my hands for 10 seconds before doing anything. Hi Tim, Sunken eyes are typically due to an infection of some kind or dehydration.
Do not leave live feeders in the terrarium overnight or for long periods of time as this can cause some stress. If you have covered all the bases and your bearded dragon is still not eating well you should seek the advice of a reptile veterinarian as there could be other possible health issues such as impaction or Metabolic Bone Disease.
A sign of Metabolic Bone Disease is a slack jaw. This condition should be seen by a reptile veterinarian immediately to be tested for Metabolic Bone Disease. The veterinarian can perform a blood test to evaluate calcium levels in the blood.
It can be very common for the bearded dragon to open its mouth while on the basking perch for short periods of time. This is a way to cool off while directly under the basking bulb. This behavior is very similar to the way a dog pants to cool off and completely normal. If slack jaw is suspected seek a reptile veterinarian immediately. In the mean time, offer soft foods to the bearded dragon such as baby food or soft wax worms.
Give him food that will be easily swallowed. To help prevent slack jaw, or Metabolic Bone Disease, make sure you are providing adequate UV radiation. Use a mercury vapor bulb or fluorescent bulb specially designed for desert-dwelling reptiles.
Supplement the diet by dusting food items with calcium powder. The Best Lighting for a Bearded Dragon. Vitamins and Minerals for Bearded Dragons. A discolored, or blackened mouth could be the symptoms of mouth rot. Mouth rot is a bacterial infection that affects the mouth and gums of bearded dragons. It is typically caused by unsanitary conditions and low temperatures. Mouth rot must be treated by a reptile veterinarian.
Produce and keep a routine cleaning schedule. Use a cleaning solution safe for reptiles such as Healthy Habitat. If temperatures tend to be too cool use a basking bulb or heat lamp with a higher wattage. Add a under tank heater to warm the substrate, if necessary. The Proper Temperatures for a Bearded Dragon.
Selecting the Ideal Enclosure for a Bearded Dragon. If the stomach of your pet darkens, or becomes black, it could be due to stress. This can happen most commonly with bearded dragons that have recently been brought home , or changed habitats. Give it time to adjust to the new surroundings. Stress can also be caused by feeder insects left in the habitat overnight, or incorrect temperatures.
Attempt to reduce stress as much as possible by giving the bearded dragon a good hiding place. The ability to hide gives the bearded dragon a safe and secure feeling where they can get away. When introducing a bearded dragon to a new home, give them a week or two to become accustom to the new surroundings.
Avoid contact with the bearded dragon except for regular feedings and cleaning. Gradually increase contact at a slow pace to avoid stressing the bearded dragon. Always monitor temperatures to make sure they are not too low or too high.
Temperatures that are not correct can cause undue stress for the reptile. Feeder insects that are left in the terrarium can crawl on and bite the bearded dragon causing a stressful situation. Always remove uneaten feeders after 15 — 20 minutes after feeding. A boney, malnourished appearance can be a direct sign that the bearded dragon is not eating correctly. This could be due to stress, improper temperatures, a lack of adequate UV lighting, or a sign of a more serious health condition.
Use a quality reptile thermometer to monitor terrarium temperatures. Always supply adequate UV radiation exposure using a Repti Glo Make sure the UV bulb you use if specifically for desert-dwelling reptiles. How to Feed a Bearded Dragon. Tail or limb disfigurement can be a sign of a broken bone resulting from a drop or impact of some type. Weak or brittle bones can be a sign of Metabolic Bone Disease.
If you notice the end of the tail becoming black and dead-looking, it could be a bacterial infection called tail rot. If a broken bone is suspected seek a veterinarian immediately for x-rays and diagnosis. The vet will also perform a blood test to check calcium levels.
Gently use ice around the area of the suspected broken bone to help reduce swelling until you can get to the veterinarian. Tail rot is a bacterial infection that causes the section of the tail to turn black and eventually fall off. If left untreated to infection will gradually move up the tail and enter the body leading to death.
If the tail of the bearded dragon begins to turn black and feel softer to the touch seek a veterinarian for antibiotic treatment. How to Bathe a Bearded Dragon. Bearded dragons in the wild are very active creatures. Captive-raised bearded dragons do not have the room typically to be as active as their wild counterparts. Less overall activity coupled with a poor diet can eventually lead to obesity. The chances of obesity with adult bearded dragons can be reduced by offering a balanced diet of nutritious feeder insects and wholesome fruits and vegetables.
Always gut-load feeder insects to increase nutrient content. Dust all food items with a good calcium powder before offering to your bearded dragon. Limit insects that are high in fat content such as wax worms. Try to provide a little exercise for your bearded dragon at least once per week. You can even take your bearded dragon out for a short walk during warm weather.
How to Prepare Feeder Crickets for Feeding. There can be many reasons why your bearded dragon is showing jerky, or shaky behavior. The most common reason is due to calcium and vitamin D3 deficiencies.
Bearded dragons need calcium for strong bones and vitamin D3 in order to absorb calcium. Always provide adequate UV lighting for a bearded dragon. Bearded dragons need UV radiation in order to produce vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 assists with the absorption of calcium in the blood stream to promote good skeletal development. UV radiation also helps to promote a healthy appetite and brain function. Continued shaky, jerky behavior may need further examination from a veterinarian for complete diagnosis.
Vitamins and Minerals for a Bearded Dragon. A bloody damaged-looking snout is most commonly caused by snout rubbing. This generally happens when it is kept in an enclosure that is too small.
Taking it out of the habitat occasionally can also help with snout rubbing. If your bearded dragon appears to have sunken eyes, it could be the signs of an infection. This can also result from dehydration. Give it a bath in warm water. It should lap some of the water after you set it in. Always supply your it with fresh water daily.
Be sure the water container is relatively shallow so it can not drown. Misting your bearded dragon several times a day will also help. It will lap up drips of water from its nose as you mist it.
It has been molting slowly for a few weeks and I came home today to see it on its belly on his sand and i noticed that his right side of his belly was very green and his bottom head and neck were black if u have any information on his cause of death it would be greatly appreciated please email me back.
Hi Hank, very sorry to hear about the loss of your bearded dragon. You mentioned sand so my best guess would be possible impaction, especially if your beardie was a baby or juvenile. Impaction is caused by a blockage in the digestive system due to swallowing small particles sometimes large particles over time. Sand is a very bad culprit of this because the bearded dragon inadvertently swallows sand particles when going after feeder insects and other food.
Over time, these sand particles collect in the digestive tract and create a blockage which usually leads to death. The best advice I can give is to take your bearded dragon to a veterinarian and have a necropsy animal autopsy performed to determine the cause of death. Hey my beardie is around 1 and a half years old and he sleeps almost half of the day i was wandering if anything is wrong with him.
Sometimes they brumate hibernate. Also depends on temperature and size of enclosure. Needs to be on warm side and F on cool side. Also need to make sure habitat is big enough for activities. Now he spends about 8 hours outside. But be very careful to watch for mouth gaping for long periods of time or if for some reason they dart to one side of the cage and is breathing heavy, these could be signs of them being too hot, considering they are healthy.
Can someone tell me please why my bearded dragon seems skiddish? He seems scared of me and any time I try to pick him up he runs away. So is he really scared of me if he sees me as a threat how do i get him to see me as a friend if he is scared he is about months old and he is a fancy one please help.
Bearded dragons have personalities just like us. Some are more timid than others. Give your beardie a lot of time to get used to you.
When you try to grab him, try not to come quickly at him from above. Go slow, and make sure he sees your hand before it touches him. Terrariums with front sliders instead of top opening are ideal. I think you might want to look up on youtube how to get my bearded dragon to like me and you should NEVER be fast handed to pick him up that will make him scared.
ReptiCarpet is great because it can be machine washed, vaccumed and wiped. It can get pricy, though. All you have to do is wipe it up with a wet paper towel. Adults like sand because they can dig in it n stuff. Only use calcium based sand. Not trying to be creepy I just wanna help. I have a one year old fancy make I got as a great deal on face book he has been perfectly healthy I have studied him slot as he and I share a copper alkaline based blood! You seem to know a good bit so here goes few days ago noticed a few scaling spots and a laceration.
Small laceration from new gigantic habitat my son built him. However this is not scale rot what are so either causes of scaling on dragons!!! Do not want him to die or waste time. Eating and pooping just fine. Sadly he does have a lettuce fetish. But a very healthy diet otherwise. I have 2 bearded dragons and I use cream of wheat. Very similar to sand but if they get any in their mouth it is ok to swallow in small amounts.
You can also use reptile carpet. The only thing with that is they have anywhere to kindof burrow to sleep. Mine love the cream of wheat to barry in. I just recently adopted a bearded dragon from my friend a few days ago. My baby bearded dragon has a block dot on the same two spots of is nec is that. When my beardie was a baby his eyes would pop out like a frog looking.
I think the author means constantly having an open mouth is a sign the habitat is too hot. It happens often when dragons are just chilling or when they are basking as a way to regulate their body temps, yes. BUT, if you have a dragon that gapes constantly and has other symptoms such as lethargy, loss of appetite, etc. Irecently noticed that my beardie has one back leg and 1 front leg that are gray in color I am worried that there might be something wrong as I have not noticed this before during shedding season.
Secondly, the gray you see is the old scales detaching from the new scales underneath. Basically, you are seeing the dead scales drying out before falling off. Next time it happens, look closely at the edge and you can see the new scales underneath and you can even see the space between the old scales and the new. I think it could possible be a burn because I was using a heat pad for him on his basking side but I also had a black rock on the same side..
My Bearded Dragon has something going on I have never noticed. I have had him about 2 yrs. When I first got him he was malnourished and small for his age so I rushed out and got him all the necessities! He has a 75 gallon tank, UVB light, basking lamp with some driftwood and a rock to get on to bask, and a container of water big enough for him to crawl into he can fit all the way if he curls his tail around his body.
He is around 2 ft. He has had this for the last 2 yrs and has grown great, become very loving and protective but friendly, and has had no health issues. Now to the problem: No idea what it is, but very concerned due to he has never been ill! Not to be gross, but could it be his genitals? I have no idea. It has been like that for two days now and I have no idea what to do. His heat lamp went out 4 days ago so my hubby just rushed out to get another one so when he gets back I can put him in some warm water in the tub and then put him under the heat lamp to see if it will go away.
Eyes and all else seems fine. Please someone help ASAP!!!!! Without a picture it is difficult to diagnose what the problem actually is, but it sounds like he is suffering from a prolapse. Basically, the end of his intestines is sticking out of the vent or anus. BlackJack should be seen by a qualified reptile vet as soon as possible. If it is a prolapse surgery may be required if it is severe. In the mean time the best advice I can give is to give him warm baths a couple times per day and limit his food to soft foods that are easily digestible like finely chopped fruits and worms such as wax worms and Goliath worms.
Try to avoid feeding crickets and meal worms because of the hard chitin shell. The causes of prolapse are difficult to determine. It could be a sign of impaction or maybe a parasite. It could also be linked to genetics. A vet will be able to determine the cause better than I can.
Welp, im not necessarily an expert at things like this, but being a reptile, I know that they naturally regrow missing tails. The part sticking inbetween his tail may be a new one that was unable to complete the process due to the fact that the tail was not completely removed. Idk if it helped, but other than what was already said I have no idea what it could be. As the expert above said, it is probably the intestines; unless you did not mention an invasive procedure that checks the sex, in which case, if you went digging in his vent, you probably pulled out one of the penile.
Either way, please take the poor little one to a vet. My bearded dragon is getting very skinny and he likes to hide in dark places is there a way than he can get back to normal???? Yes that is his penis. Maybe sand or substrate in there. Needs to be washed out and do not put sand or walnut shell in his cage. Thanks for this list.
We have given him water by dropper and baths. Overall, he looks healthy. He usually eats crickets, waxworms and carrots. He has not liked any other fruit or veggie offered. Any tips would be appreciated. If it is available try feeding him dandilians.
Make sure that they are still yellow. Most bearded dragons love them. It also just lays there and does nothing. Hi Arianna, With all the issues you have mentioned, I recommend you get your bearded dragon to a qualified reptile vet immediately. It could be so ething and old bearded dragon of mine its called eye bleed.
It also could not be a bearded drago it could bea lizard that does that for deefense. I would take it to a vet or do reeserc. My beardie is alert and looks healthy minus being very skinny and eats very little. His tank temp is at 90 and I thought to make it warmer. But then he spends a lot of time under his basking rock where it is cooler, not coming out all day.
I soak him twice a week and he poops regularly while in his bath. He drinks water everyday from an eye dropper while on my lap. He used to be a great little eater but now he eats two crickets and stops. Or three worms and stops. Anything else I can try to stimulate his appetite?
If your bearded dragon is less than 6 months old the basking temps should be 95 — degrees F. If your bearded dragon is 6 — 18 months old then the basking temps should be 95 — degrees F, and an adult basking temps should be around 90 — 93 degrees F.
The cooler regions should be kept anywhere from 80 — 88 degrees F depending on age the younger the bearded dragon, the warmer. You can read more about temps here — https: This can be accomplished using a fluorescent bulb especially made for reptiles or a Mercury Vapor Bulb.
You can read more about proper lighting here — https: Both temperatures and proper radiation can affect appetite. It is important to supply these in correct amounts to maintain proper beardie health. Also try offering different food items. Try some sweet fruits like cantaloupe, strawberries, or blueberries that are cut into small pieces for him to swallow.
Try different insects like dubia roaches, wax worms, Goliath worms or even night crawlers. Maybe he needs a change in food offered. You mentioned offering him water. If you are using tap water make sure to use a water conditioner that eliminates chlorine and ammonia. I hope this helps, Vickie, and if you have any other questions please feel free to contact us any time. Tee hope you can help me or give me you advise we bought Spike from an individual almost 3 yrs ago we have no idea how old she is , she is at least 12to 14 inches long including tail , came home 3 weeks ago and she had laid 18 small eggs we were floored did the research to find this is not uncommon as I am sure you know , after that she was eating a lot and we gave her xtra calcium from what I read that was needed..
Hi Tim, Sunken eyes are typically due to an infection of some kind or dehydration. Try giving her a luke warm bath a couple times per day. Watch to see if she laps water as she is sitting in the bath. You should also mist her several times per day using a misting bottle spray bottle.
Mist her all over for 4 — 6 minutes and also observe if she is lapping the water droplets of her nose as you do it. Make sure to use bottled water or a water conditioner if using tap water for the baths or mistings. You can also offer water via an eye dropper and just slowly drip water on her lips and nose.
Be careful around the nostrils though! Monitor her feeding and overall activity levels. If she stops eating and begins acting lethargic it could be either a sign of brumation kind of similar to hibernating or could be a sign of illness. I would recommend monitoring her closely the next couple days and administer the baths, misting, and rehydration. Hi tina can you help my beardie has started to be very hyper and constantly wants out of viv hes not really eating and im really worried something is wrong.
Hi John, generally a darkening beard could be a sign of aging, or it could be a sign of stress. Has anything changed recently — rearranging of terrarium, moving terrarium to different location, change in feeding times, etc.? Sometimes bearded dragons can just lay around and not move much at times.
I would recommend to keep a close eye on him in the next few days. Monitor his eating and pooping. Ok I got my dragon 2 weeks ago and it is a baby. When I first got him I tried to feed him every day about 3 or four meet worms. He is dark brown with blackish stripes on the stomach but when I first got him he was a light brown with a whitish or light tan stomach. He has a pretty big tank.
He has a heat lamp and I give him warm baths daily. Ive had my bearded dragon for about 7 months his name is BruceLee and hes missing an arm: I bought my baby beardrd about a week ago the first few days he attacked his food like hed never eaten now he will onl eat every other day and just lays on his basking rock flat with half closed eyes head high up his beard and stomach are black striped with white dots his tank temp is about 99 degrees in basking area im concerned he is sick he poops daily it is dark solid with a little white spot in it yesterday he was shedding on his head now today it looks like the dead skin is gone but he is rubbing his face on his basking rock should i be concerned.
Try to get a biger tank. The white spot in the poop is totaly normal. He could be lazy because of the seaso s. In the e fall and wi ter they get lazyer. As for the eating make sure to feed the beardie the rig hg things. I would do reserch on the eati g though. They will do that because of stress. It can be caused by a new tank, spot in the house, ir a new owner in your case. I would try to make the. Feel welco e dnot worry. My adult bearded dragon was fine just a couple of hours ago.
Now he is all black under his chin, very lethargic. He looks a little bloated and while holding him he keeps adjusting as though he is uncomfortable. He could have seen his reflectio. In the tank walls. They could be defensiv about their territory. Just try to leave him be for a couple hours. He will be fine. Hello I have noticed for the last two days that my bearded dragon is reluctant to open one of her eyes. Could this be due to something in the eye or could this be a more serious matter.
She also seems very un active and jumpy when approaching her. I have seen that on some websites that they say it could be to do with shedding. Do you have any ideas on what it could be and what I can do? What could be wrong?
Your bearded dragon could be going into a natural state of brumation hibernation. This is pretty common when the seasons begin to change from summer to fall and then winter. I have had bearded dragons brumate for 3 — 4 months during the winter where they eat about once per week and stay very inactive.
You can try to increase the basking temperatures about 5 — 10 degrees and keep the lights on for 14 hours during the day with 10 hours of nighttime to see if this helps to bring them out of brumation. My Beardie has made vomiting noises but also sounds like he is hiccupping sometimes. He recently had an impaction problem that I had fixed. He will be getting a new light here soon and the temp before the light broke was at I do notice he does move to the other side of the tank.
The temp has will be lowered soon once I get paid. Carrots, baby kale and spinach, apples is his favorite. I have stopped giving him mealworms for I found that they can cause impaction and I have ordered horned worms which will help with his digestion. Other then that, he is adventurous, chases the cat and all.
Can someone please help me with information? I have no cash right now to take him to the vet and the best vet for reptiles in in another city which is almost 2 hours away. I just recently noticed that my beardie had just had an issue with constipation, and with that, I had given him a warmth bath to help him excrement. I do frequent spot cleans to ensure that his environment is as clean as possible until I can get around to cleaning his tank thoroughly. His diet consists mainly of medium Brown crickets, Kale, strawberries, and sometimes of Dubai roaches.
Should I go ahead and replace the repti-sand with the ecocarpet to help ensure he does not go through impaction? I might have to go and check up with a veterinarian as soon as possible to get him checked out, but still. I would recommend replacing the Repti-Sand with a reptile carpet that you described. What you bought should work fine. If you still find constipation to be an issue try altering his diet by offering foods that are easier to digest, things like greens, berries blueberries, strawberries with seeds removed, raspberries , or baby foods peas, carrots, squash.
Reduce the amount of crickets as they can sometimes be difficult to digest and increase the amount of small Dubia roaches. You can also offer wax worms, Horned worms sometimes called Goliath worms , phoenix worms, butter worms, and even the occasional nightcrawler.
These are all easily digestible. Avoid feeding meal worms or Super worms until the bearded dragon is over a year old as they have a hard chitin that is difficult to digest. I would also try to get the basking area a tad warmer. My bearded dragon is sick i need help. It could lead to tail rot. Witch my beardie is being treated for now. Its no fun and expensive.
Hi we took our bearded dragon, mushu to the vet tonight because we came home from dinner to find him very limp with his mouth wide open and his breathing seemed very laboured, also he had a solid lump on his chest and looked in a very bad way. There was no reptile specialist at the vet so not much help there however he has calmed down now mouth has closed lump is gone and he is walking although he is walking funny as if it is difficult.
If anybody has any idea what is wrong with him is really appreciate the help thanks. I just bought two dragons from craigslist and they had a burnt out uv light and a borderline burnt out heat bulb that was set up incorrectly. The previous owners fed them insects from a baitshop which is very concerning and i fear they may have parasites.
My main concerns though are with the female. I think she has yellow fungus because she has soft yellow spots on her. On the top of her head on her left shoulder and on her neck crease. How do i treat this at home? I do plan on taking them to a vet but cant do that soon.
Formula should be hot to your finger and get it red, but should not burn you. If you can count from 1 to 30 with your finger submerged in the formula without getting burned, it is just right to feed.
Place the bird in front of you on a towel facing you. Fill your eye dropper, pipette or syringe with food. Place the head of the bird between two of your fingers Index and middle finger in a V position so you can lock the Head in between those fingers. Use your thumb to pry the beak open. Once beak is open insert the full pipette or eye dropper into the bird's mouth above the tongue.
Slowly squeeze the food into the bird's mouth. Refill and repeat until birds crop is full. Just a small, additional explanation on hand feeding: Make sure that you put the syringe pipette into the beak on the baby's left side - your RIGHT side - aim it toward the back of the throat, across the tongue at a slight angle to the left your left. You will want to feed the formula slowly and watch the baby carefully as he will stop pause drinking the formula to take a breath.
If you keep feeding the formula when he is trying to take a breath he will inhale the formula and this can kill your baby. Birds have 3 holes in their mouths - one in the roof of their mouth, one in the middle of their tongue and one in the back of the throat on the left hand side as you look at them.
The holes in the roof of the mouth and the tongue are for breathing - the one into the roof of the mouth goes into the upper respiratory tract snares, upper sinuses. The hole in the tongue goes into the lower respiratory tract - lungs. Normally, while eating, these holes are closed.
The hole in the rear left hand the bird's right side is the esophagus and leads to the crop and intestinal system. Make sure you have a firm grip on your babies. Healthy hungry babies some times will have strong feeding responses they pump some times very strongly A firm grip will prevent injuries.
Understanding your bird's anatomy and how it works may help you in hand feeding. Remember to go slow and watch your baby - he'll tell you what he needs air or more food. Count all pipettes, eye droppers or your C C. Check time of feeding and write it down, record when bird or birds have emptied out.
This will aid you while hand feeding. It is important to know how many hours elapse before the bird will require the next feeding. If you are consistent with your formula preparations you will know how much to feed the next time the baby is hungry. Formula intake may have to be adjusted up or down in CC. Good record keeping will help you on the way to a healthy baby. Furthermore it will alert you very quick of any problems you may have.
One of the problems of hand feeding babies can be a slow crop a crop that does not empty out on time. Most breeders call this a sour crop or yeast infection. There are several conditions that can be the cause of a slow crop. If you feed too much formula, reduce the formula intake somewhat at the next feeding. If this was the case the baby should empty out the next time normally. Some times a sour crop is a secondary problem to a much larger problem. To get the other equations, you differentiate to get a t , and then scale by m to get f t because Newton's Second, again.
For scenario 3, we're considering the diminishing effects of the reducing pressure in the chamber. Unfortunately, their use of Bernoulli's Law is erroneous; they assume density is constant, but it isn't. In any case, the result is greater than Mach 1 for reasonable values, which is not possible. The volumetric flow rate should instead be calculated as:.
The Riccardi obtained is:. Because I'm lazy, I tried solving this with WolframAlpha. Anyway, the equation is separable, so it's nearly as easy to solve by hand:. You calculate a t and f t as before. Scenario 4 is to scenario 3 similarly as scenario 2 was to scenario 1. Here, the differential equation for M t is unchanged, because it is already parametrized on the hole area.
The first change is in the Riccardi equation, where we need to multiply v a by H in the final term, yielding a final v t of: If you'd like to tweak the numbers, or you don't want to enter in all this garbage into your calculator, the Python script I used for this analysis can be found here: This came up in a different newsgroup, and upon trying to answer it I blew it badly.
What happens to the helpless heroine? Back by Callie, the cross-sectional area is about 9 [m 2 ], so conservation of mass assuming uniform density says the airspeed by her is a gusty OK, so what did I screw up? I do take into account the increased airspeed as she gets very close to the breach closer than 2 [m] or so.
Or does Callie really fully decompress in the airlock, and gently drift out about 10 seconds later? I haven't verified your numbers, but for a quick sanity check, there's about kg of air in the lock, but only half of that is behind her—her own body weight—and most of that will escape past her. If you really want the damsel to experience dramatic accelerations, I think you should start her closer to the opening, or have the inner door open, or maybe use a longer, thinner lock that she almost blocks with her body.
Yes, that's about right, if the door opens outward and sticks at a 10 cm gap. Though actually I'd be very surprised to see an airlock with a door that opened outward at all. If it did open outward, and was free to swing open wider, consider that it has kPa pressure acting on the inner surface.
It will accelerate open very rapidly indeed — probably on the order of tens of milliseconds. The rarefaction front will propagate inward at the speed of sound, with the air accelerated nearly instantaneously as the front passes. At worst, approximately, and assuming a heroine of only moderate size i. The heroine, being around a thousand times more dense than air, will be accelerated to about a thousandth of that, around a foot per second.
One cannot recommend, for the usual purposes, a heroine who obstructs a substantial proportion of nine square metres. The duration is much longer than that, since she is still in the path of the air escaping from further back in the airlock. Even though the static pressure is at 0 Pa, it still has significant density. So the air rushing past her from further in the airlock will exert pressure as it escapes past her. So for a long airlock, her velocity would asymptotically approach the free outflow speed.
Ah, so if I hang a sheet of tissue paper just inside the airlock of an O'Neill habitat, and open the door, it won't go anywhere, right? Because all it will experience is an infinitesimal moment of acceleration as the transition between atmosphere and vacuum propagates past its negligible thickness?
I'm thinking that's not right. I'm also thinking that a propagating transition between atmosphere and vacuum would represent a violation of the law of conservation of mass. What actually propagates, is a transition between air at 10 5 Pa, and air at 5. And that transonic wind condition, remains even after the transition has passed — for as long as it takes for the transition wave to reach the farthest wall of the chamber behind our heroine, and as long beyond that as it takes for the wind to actually empty the chamber.
If the geometry is cylindrical, I get for a standard heroine in a standard atmosphere, a net velocity of 1. That's in the low-velocity limit; as she herself approaches transonic velocity downstream, the force will decrease and her own velocity will asymptotically approach The ability for explosive decompression to push people around is usually exaggerated. Your results sound qualitatively like I'd expect — it'd budge her a little at first but very rapidly the ambient air pressure would drop to the point that it wouldn't have much of an effect.
That's interesting, because it appears to conflict with the usual description of explosive decompression on aircraft: Is that description simply inaccurate, or is there a difference in the cases that I'm missing? It is simply inaccurate.
Yes, decompression is dangerous, and if a significant hole opens up the winds can be extreme. But they're not caused by the decompression! It should be noted that an airliner at altitude is usually moving at a significant fraction of the speed of sound through the air. The air doesn't just simply leave as it would in a vacuum, or if it were a zeppelin cabin.
From the point of view of the aircraft, the air outside has kinetic energy greater than any hurricane. If a large hole opens up, part of that can get in. It depends on how much air is in the vessel, how big the hole is, and how close the victim is to the breach. Sure, there are some cases where the victim will likely be forced out of the breach. But probably not in the case Brian was talking about. Not that really helps her chances, since she's exposed to vacuum with no way to get back in.
The image of everything that's not nailed down flying out the door may be inaccurate, but the earlier estimate of 0. Perhaps the most famous explosive decompression incident is Aloha Airlines which suddenly lost a large section of skin but managed to land safely. One flight attendant was thrown to the floor and another one was thrown out of the plane altogether, never to be seen again.
A isn't particularly large but it would require substantially more imparted velocity than that to throw somebody out. A spacecraft pressurized to 1 atmosphere should be a bit worse as well, since the accident in question occurred at 24,ft where the outside air pressure is still about 0. It should be noted that a small hole doesn't do this, because a small hole doesn't result in explosive decompression in the first place.
A small hole will leak , not cause a bang, and there would just be some wind. Thus the fears of instant death due to a gunfight piercing the hull are completely overblown, and I believe this is what Mythbusters investigated. But this is an entirely different scenario from opening a large airlock door or the case of the poor Aloha Airlines flight attendant.
Just the decompression, not so much. It's the fact that so much of the hull was peeled away. The Mythbusters bit iirc was concerned with two aspects of a fairly small hole. First, will it suck everything inside towards it, and second, will it rip the hull open and expose the interior to the airstream that is, will any small break in the skin necessarily spread very far.
And they concluded, no and no. Of course, they were talking about a bullethole again iirc. But I doubt things would be much different for anybody at a reasonable distance from, say, a hatch-sized hole. An upper-half-of-the-hull-peels-away-in-a-section-tens-of-feet-long sized hole is another matter entirely, and I doubt anybody will notice the decompression, given the brisk breeze outside.
Later the episode they tested what a moderate amount of explosives would do to the pressurized hull. The result was iirc a seat cusion sucked out, but the dummy still in its seat. Again its not the decompression you have to fear. NASA assumes that each astronaut consumes per day 0. Astronauts also use 26 kilograms of water per day for personal hygiene.
NASA also assumes that each astronaut excretes 4. For details see below. Some of this water can be reclaimed. Ken Burnsides and Eric Henry figured that each person has a reserve of 10 liters of water, and requires somewhere between 0. An aluminum potable water storage tank The VPCAR process is a wastewater treatment technology that combines distillation with high-temperature catalytic oxidation of volatile impurities such as ammonia and organic compounds.
The report mentioned that the VPCAR system was selected over a rival system since it had a lower mass, volume, and turnaround time. Of course there is the problem of recycling disgust , but that has to be fixed by psychologists, not engineers. NASA has a variety of space foods. Preparing food for prolonged space missions is always a challenge. If you are not interested in how these numbers were derived, skip to the next section. This is about 2. Frozen meat has a density of about 0.
Frozen veggies were less 0. Fresh foods have a density of roughly 0. Dry and canned goods range from densities of 0. Split the difference and use 0. Assume that we're off on our calculations and round up to 80 m 3 as a reserve. Storage, including refrigeration wastage is usually three times the space, but the Navy has a tradition of doing things in amazingly tight quarters. So we will merely double it, for m 3 to store our food. Add about liters of water water for crew for 90 days, plus a reserve which of course masses kg.
Add about 3, liters of compressed air 0. William Seney notes that the NC State document specify oxygen consumption figures differ considerably from Eric and Ken's estimate. According to the NC State document this works out to about 0. For a real Spartan bare-minimum cruise, you can probably use a figure of one m 3 per person per day. But this would not be recommended for a cruise of longer than 20 to 30 days.
And don't even think about feeding your crew food pills. The bare-minimum of consumables mass looks like 0. People actually need 2. Our 90 day cruise now has about m 3 of bare essentials. Put in niceties like better cooking gear, spare clothing, toilet paper, video games, soda, luxury goods, and you are probably getting close to m 3. That will fit in a sphere 8 meters in diameter about 25 feet. If the spacecraft has no artificial gravity, you'd better include lots of spices and hot sauce.
As the body's internal fluids change their balance, crewmembers will get the equivalent of stuffy noses. This will decrease the sense of taste. Food will taste bland like it does when you have a head cold, and for the same reason. You'll need more space if you want to include hydroponics for fresh veggies.
Roughly liters of hydroponics per person per 'green meal' per week. This also helps CO 2 scrubbing and crew morale.
About 20 m 3 per 25 men, or m 3 for our man crew. The injector can be set to dispense water in one-half ounce increments up to 8 ounces. Dehydrated food containers have a "septum adapter", i. Otherwise when you removed the water injector the container would become a water weenie and drench you. For beverages you would then insert into the septum adapter a drinking straw. The straw has a built-in clamp to prevent the drink from spraying all over your face when you take the straw out of your mouth.
For foods you wait until it rehydrates, then use the scissors to cut the container open. You make an X-shaped cut, creating four large flaps to help keep the food from escaping a "spoon-bowl" package. The warming oven is a forced air convection oven with internal hot plate.
It can hold up to 14 food containers at a time: NASA's space shuttle used fuel cells for power, which create plenty of water usable to rehydrate food. The shuttle meals were mostly dehydrated to save on mass. The International Space Station on the other hand uses solar panel for power, which do not produce water.
While there is some water available from recycling there is not enough for rehydrating food there is barely enough for powdered drinks.
Therefore the ISS uses no dehydrated food, instead is uses frozen and thermostabilized food which already has the water in it. Back in the 's, it was tough to get food to armies on the move the age-old problem of Logistics.
An army would have to split up and spread out in order to ransack all the villages and farms in the area for food. Napoleon almost lost the war and his life at the Battle of Marengo because of this. While his army was split up, Napoleon's small army segment got ambushed by the entire Austrian army.
If the other French groups had not returned in time, Napoleon might not have even been mentioned in the history books. Determined not to get caught like that again, Napoleon offered a reward of 12, francs to the inventor who could preserve food for army rations in large quantities. The prize was won by Nicolas Appert , who basically invented thermostabilizing your grandmother calls it " home canning " using Mason jars. He had stumbled upon Louis Pasteur's pasteurization process 50 years before Pasteur.
The press went wild, waxing poetically on how Appert had established the art of fixing the seasons, so seasonal foods could be enjoyed year round. The French army was pleased as well. Appert used glass bottles to hold the food. A short time later, Peter Durand figured out how to thermostabilize food inside tin-plated cans.
A couple of decades later artists figured out how to make their studios portable by storing their oil paints in tin tubes. Decades later NASA stored thermostabilized foods inside tin tubes for the Mercury mission but later abandoned them because the mass of the tube was more than the mass of the food it held. NASA packages food in single-service disposable containers to avoid the ugly payload mass requirements of a dishwasher.
Eating utensils and food trays are cleaned at the hygiene station with premoistened towelettes. The containers are in one of five standardized dimensions so they will fit the holes in the "dinner table" and the slots in the oven. All five sizes have the same width. They often have build-in velcro pads on the bottom. In the galley the girls set about making dainty sandwiches, but the going was very hard indeed.
Margaret was particularly inept. Slices of bread went one way, bits of butter another, ham and sausage in several others. She seized two trays and tried to trap the escaping food between them — but in the attempt she released her hold and floated helplessly into the air.
We'd better tie everything down, I guess, and let everybody come in and cut off a chunk of anything they want. But what I'm wondering about is drinking. I'm simply dying of thirst and I'm afraid to open this bottle. DuQuesne was surveying the room, a glint of amusement in his one sound eye. Just a minute — I'll get the net. He got it; and while he was deftly clearing the air of floating items of food he went on.
Plain liquids you can drink through a straw after you learn how. Your swallowing has got to be conscious, and all muscular with no gravity. But what I came here for was to tell you I'm ready to put on one G of acceleration so we'll have normal gravity. I'll put it on easy, but watch it'. Meanwhile, it was time to eat, though he did not feel particularly hungry.
One used little physical energy in space, and it was easy to forget about food. Easy — and dangerous; for when an emergency arose, you might not have the reserves needed to deal with it.
He broke open the first of the meal packets, and inspected it without enthusiasm. And he had grave doubts about the promise printed underneath: Still, the liverwurst went down pleasantly enough; so did the chocolate and the pineapple puree.
The stewards, it appeared, were determined to make him eat for the whole twenty-five hours of the trip, and he was continually fending off unwanted meals. Eating in zero gravity was no real problem, contrary to the dark forebodings of the early astronauts. He sat at an ordinary table, to which the plates were clipped, as aboard ship in a rough sea.
All the courses had some element of stickiness, so that they would not take off and go wandering round the cabin. Thus a chop would be glued to the plate by a thick sauce, and a salad kept under control by an adhesive dressing. With a little skill and care there were few items that could not be tackled safely; the only things banned were hot soups and excessively crumbly pastries. Drinks of course, were a different matter; all liquids simply had to be kept in plastic squeeze tubes. Emergency or Survival food is typically found in emergency re-entry capsules and spacecraft lifeboats although in reality the latter are a really stupid concept.
They also may or may not be stored in the ship proper to help deal with a temporary interruption of the food supply such as a catastrophic malfunction in the CELSS. If all the algae got incinerated by a solar proton storm, the crew will need something to eat while a new crop of algae is grown to harvest. You see this in a couple of episodes of Star Trek: Enterprise , where emergency rations are used when the food replicator is non-functional.
Real-world emergency rations typically are nutrient bars containing about 2, calories enough food for an entire day.
Flavor is not a design consideration, the starving will eat anything. Even if Nutraloaf has been ruled "cruel and unusual punishment". And unlike Humanitarian daily rations , being acceptable to a variety of religious and ethnic groups is also not a design consideration. It is practically impossible to make a food ration which is acceptable to all groups.
In science fiction, emergency rations on re-entry capsules are to help you survive being marooned on an uninhabited planet long enough to figure out what part of the local flora and fauna are edible. In reality, the chance local flora and fauna even existing are remote, edible or otherwise. Especially if you are limited to our Solar System. Military field rations are portable easily prepared food issued to soldiers deployed in the field.
Around World War I these were called "iron rations". You have to sit down to eat them, though. These are MREs designed so that a pilot can eat them while simultaneously piloting an airplane: MREs typically require two hands to eat, while it is not recommended for the pilot to take both hands off the control yoke.
First Strike rations are for people on the go. This can range from a First-in scout traveling from their hypothetical starship to explore and evaluate a hypothetical habitable planet to an asteroid miner living for several days in their space suit and subsisting on whatever they can squeeze through their helmet's chow-lock. Strikers gotta move fast, they can't be weighted down by bricks of MREs. Yes, first strike rations have no mass in free fall, but all the inertia will still be there.
Which means Every gram counts. Especially if you are an asteroid miner with a Spartan propellant budget. Luckily the Horde carried their own rations. Somebody cleaned the place out. Ten cases of emergency rations. The First Watch Officer comes through the Weapons hatch. He has a metal case in his arms, a sheet of paper in one hand. The Commander peers into the case. This's better stuff than we've been eating for three months.
A minute later, I peel the foil and — lo! It's no gourmet delight. Something like potato hash including gristly gray chopped meat, a couple of unidentifiable vegetables, and a dessert that might be chocolate cake in disguise. The frosting on the cake has melted into the hash. I polish the tray, belch. Yanevich gives each man a meal, then hands me another pack. They come forty-two to a case. He sets the last aside for the Chief.
To my questioning frown, he says, "That's for your buddy. Out of nowhere, out of the secret jungles of metal, comes Fearless Fred the cat , rubbing my shins and purring. I heat his pack, thieve the cake, place the tray on the deckplates. Fred polishes his tray in less time than I did mine. At least I was still alive, I was free of the dead ship in a Life Boat, and I had air to breathe even if it was not the air my lungs craved. It would seem my entrance into the projectile had activated its ancient mechanism.
If we were on course for the nearest planet, how long a voyage did we face? And what kind of a landing might we have to endure? I could breathe, but I would need food and water.
There might be supplies — E-rations — on board. But could they still be used after all these years — or could a human body be nourished by them? With my teeth I twisted free the latch which fastened my left glove, scraped that off, and freed my hand. Then I felt along my harness. These suits were meant to be worn planetside as well as for space repairs; they must have a supply of E-rations.
My fingers fumbled over some loops of tools and found a seam-sealed pouch. It took me a few moments to pick that open. I had not felt hunger before; now it was a pain devouring me. I brought the tube I had found up to eye level. It was more than I could manage to sit up or even raise my head higher, but the familiar markings on the tube were heartening.
One moment to insert the end between my teeth, bite through, and then the semiliquid contents flooded my mouth and I swallowed greedily. I was close to the end of that bounty when I felt movement against my bared throat and remembered I was not alone. It took a great deal of resolution to pinch tight that tube and hold it to the muzzle of the furred one. Its pointed teeth seized upon the container with the same avidity I must have shown, and I squeezed the tube slowly while it sucked with a vigor I could feel through the touching of its small body to mine.
There were three more tubes in my belt pouch. Each one, I knew, was intended to provide a day's rations, perhaps two if a man were hard pushed. Four days — maybe, we could stretch that to eight. My fingers closed about a tube of E-ration and I did not have to fake the avidity with which I gripped its tip between my teeth, bit through the stopper, and spit it out, before sucking the semiliquid contents. No meal of my imagination could have topped the flavor of what now filled my mouth, or the satisfaction afforded me as it flowed in gulps down into me.
The mixture was meant to sustain a man under working conditions; and it would renew my strength even more than usual food. Those are your tracetabs. They contain all the trace elements your body needs. There are about three thousand tabs in that box 8. If we go on xeno-rations, you'll need them. On maybe half a dozen of them, all the trace elements necessary for human survival are present in the food.
You'll die just as dead from lack of magnesium, phosphorous, or any number of other elements as from lack of water. If you get stranded on a xenoworld, that box can be your lifeline. Always keep it filled. We were low on rations.
It was said that Line Marines could march a thousand kilometers if they had coffee, wine, and monkey. In the French military, canned meat spam, sort of was called 'singe' 'monkey' because one brand showed Madagascar on the label. As Dr Pournelle modeled the Falkenberg series on European history, the idea of a preserved meat called 'monkey' could have come from there also.
On the topic of human metabolic waste, NASA assumes:. An attempt should be made to reclaim the water. Male astronauts will use approximately 28 grams per day of toilet paper, minimum. Female will use 64 grams per day, because unlike their male counterparts, they wipe after urination. There will be about 5. More toilet paper is required than is necessary under one gravity since in microgravity the fecal material has no particular inclination to separate from the body.
Women experience menstruation for 4 to 6 days occurring every 26 to 34 days. The total amount of menses is about This is highly variable. Approximately grams of menstrual pads or tampons are consumed each period, again highly variable. Female crew members on the International Space Station use medication to prevent menstruation for up to six months, but this may not be acceptable for longer missions.
This brings up the question of how to use a space toilet in free fall. The sad fact of the matter is "there ain't no graceful way". Naoto Kimura mentioned that "Oh-gee Whiz" would be a good brandname for space toilet. In terms of not in the suit, and in the spacecraft again that's varied. In Apollo, for feces you just stuck a plastic bag on your butt which was 6 inches in diameter' something like that' maybe a little bit less 12 inches or so long and the mouth of it had a flange at the top with an adhesive on it, and you'd peel the coating off the adhesive and literally stick it to your butt.
And if you think you know where your rear end is, you really find out, because you'd paste it on very carefully! But then the problem comes, because there's no particular reason whatsoever for the feces to separate from your rear end. So as a result the problem is left as an exercise to the student to peel the bag off and make sure everything stays within the bag, and get all wiped off.
It's basically a one hour procedure. Yeah, from the time you start to peel down to stick the bag on and all that, till the time you have finished cleaning up and have everything wrapped up and stowed and have your clothes back on and everything, it's damn near an hour. And at times it's taken longer. Because when you peel that bag off, you try to take a handful of paper, and you know, lead the way in with that, but by the time you get done, you've got stuff spread all over your backsides, and if you're not careful, your clothes, and everything else.
No, because generally speaking it's fairly sticky so once it's in the bag it doesn't come out, but the problem is making sure it's loose of you when you get the bag off. It just is not a simple procedure, no matter what you do. Well, in any case, that was in Apollo. In terms of the urine system , that was simple in Apollo. It's just the same as a relief tube in airplanes. It's a tube with a funnel on the end that you urinate into.
And, at the other end of the tube is lower pressure than at the business end of it. So there's a differential pressure in the outward direction. Well, we did exactly the same thing, except you know on the other end of the hose you've got a vacuum instead of a couple of psi down or something. So you just basically urinate into a relief tube. There have been various designs so you can use a roll-on cuff to do it or you can just hang it out there in the air and do it.
There are a couple of different variations, but basically you urinated directly overboard through a relief tube. And of course, you didn't lose much cabin air, because while the liquid is in the tube, in the hose, no air is going down. It's differential pressure carrying the liquid. So it's only a matter of designing it for the right flow rate.
No, not that I know of. There may be some flame retardant chemicals put into it just so you don't have any unnecessary flammable materials around, but I'm not sure whether that's the case or not. No, it is in the same bag with the fecal material, and in the early missions that was a plastic bag that you mixed in a disinfectant or actually an anti-gas, oh, what's the word I want, I guess disinfectant would be the best word, which holds down the generation of gas, and you mix that disinfectant liquid all through the fecal material.
You mix it in, seal the plastic bag. Well, it's in a small, like a ketchup, a little plastic container like you find ketchup in in restaurants, in a cafeteria or something, it's like that. You tear the slit across the top, being careful not to squeeze it so the stuff comes out, and then you drop that into the fecal container, and then seal the fecal container. Then you squeeze it through the, you know, externally, you know, which forces it out of the container, and then you mix it by massaging the fecal bag.
It's really fun when it's still warm. The Johnson Space Center "potty cam," as it is more casually known, is an astronaut training aid. It provides a vivid, arresting perspective on something you've had intimate contact with all your life but never really seen.
Positioning is critical because the opening to a Space Shuttle toilet is 4 inches across, as opposed to the inch maw we are accustomed to on Earth. You are not really sitting on the seat. You are hovering in close proximity. The tendency, says Broyan, is to touch down too far back. Then your angle of approach is off, and you sully the back of the transport tube and plug some of the air holes that encircle the rim. Space toilets operate like shop vacs; "contributions," to use Broyan's word, are guided along, or "entrained," by flowing air rather than by water and gravity, two things in short-to-nonexistent supply in an orbiting spacecraft.
Plugged air holes can disable the toilet. Additionally, if you gum up the holes, it is then your responsibility to clean them out—a task Broyan understates as "arduous.
Weinstein says he doubts that many of the astronauts use the potty cam. Along the same wall as the Positional Trainer is a fully appointed and functioning Space Shuttle commode. It looks less like a toilet than a high-tech, top-loading washing machine. Though the device itself is a high-fidelity version of the one on board the shuttle, the experience is not.
There is gravity down here at Johnson Space Center, and that makes all the difference. Gravity facilitates what is known in aerospace waste collection circles as "separation. The space toilet's air flow is more than an alternate flushing method.
It facilitates the Holy Grail of zero-gravity elimination: Air drag serves to pull the material away from its source. A separation strategy courtesy of Weinstein: That way, there is less contact between the body and the "bolus" another in the waste engineer's vast arsenal of euphemisms —and therefore less surface tension to be broken.
The newest seat is designed to function as a "cheek spreader" to facilitate a cleaner break. A more sensible arrangement might be to adopt the posture favored by much of the rest of the world—and by the human excretory system itself. Rethke suggested to NASA that they add a set of foot restraints higher up, to accommodate those who wish to approximate the squatting posture in zero gravity. When it comes to the astronauts' creature comforts, familiarity wins out over practicality. In the aftermath of Apollo, where there were fecal bags rather than toilets, bathroom facilities became a charged topic.
The fecal bag is a clear plastic sack, similar to a vomit bag in its size, holding capacity, and ability to inspire dread and revulsion. The adhesive pulled hairs.
Worse, without gravity or air flow or anything else to foster separation, the astronaut was obliged to employ his finger.