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Retrieved August 10, Gut—brain axis Hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis Sympathetic nervous system. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Phaleristics List of oldest heraldry Women in heraldry Socialist heraldry Vexillology. Bat Bee Crapaudy toad Emmet ant Serpent. The recovery of European wolf populations began after the s, when traditional pastoral and rural economies declined and thus removed the need to heavily persecute wolves.

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Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs.

This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the smell. Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals. Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, canis lupus , and its subspecies. For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation.

For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Middle Pleistocene — present , years BP [1]. Linnaeus , [3]. Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf. List of gray wolf populations by country.

Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology. Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks. Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. Human uses of hunted wolves.

Wolves as pets and working animals. However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus. This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves.

This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L. David Mech in his book The Wolf. He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves. Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years.

Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Tomus I in Latin 10 ed. Retrieved November 23, Gray wolf Canis lupus and allies", in Feldhamer, George A. Wild Mammals of North America: Grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, , pp. Foxes, Wolverhampton Wanderers F.

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. Its Domestication and Behavior. The cautionary case of Bulgarian wolves". The Fear of Wolves: Norsk institutt for naturforskning NINA. A contribution to the study of wolf-dog hybridization patterns".

Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. Archived from the original PDF on September 24, Retrieved June 2, A new profile for the wolf. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Walker's Mammals of the World. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves Canis lupus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: PLoS Genetics, 10 7.

Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Journal of Applied Genetics. Canadian Journal of Zoology.

Archived from the original on December 14, Environmental and intrinsic correlates of stress in free-ranging wolves. PLOS One, 10 9. Decade of the Wolf: The Quarterly Review of Biology. University of California Press. Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. The Wolves of Isle Royale. Fauna of the National Parks of the United States. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Retrieved March 16, Social behavior of langur monkeys Presbytis entellus in a high altitude environment.

Wolves Change An Ecosystem". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved August 10, Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal Canis aureus L. S; Andriashek, D Mashkour "Hyenas around the cities. Zoology in the Middle East. Retrieved February 20, It's a Lot Like Cats and Dogs". Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora hyaenas and cats , Volume 2.

Archived from the original on February 25, Wild cats of the world , University of Chicago Press, p. American Society of Mammalogists. Archived from the original PDF on June 17, In Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Archived from the original PDF on March 25, Also available in German: Heinz Staffelbach, Handbuch Schweizer Alpen. Animals in the Third Reich: The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, Kuolleissa susissa vanhoja hauleja" , Iltalehti , March 19, Retrieved May 19, Translated by Kevin White.

Retrieved May 2, Retrieved November 24, Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press, pp. Cultural Perspectives , Psychology Press, pp. Archived from the original PDF on July 27, Smith, Yan Xie, Robert S. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Retrieved February 9, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on July 30, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

Archived from the original PDF on March 19, Retrieved January 25, Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk. Conservation Biology,16 3 , The Canadian Historical Review. Archived from the original PDF on June 21, A Complete Guide to Heraldry.

University of Oklahoma Press. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. The complex interactions between wolves Canis lupus and dogs Canis familiaris in a conservation context". Wolf and dog competition in Italy. Wolf attacks on dogs in Scandinavia — Will wolves in Scandinavia go extinct if dog owners are allowed to kill a wolf attacking a dog? Examensarbete , Institutionen för ekologi, Grimsö forskningsstation. What's New for Conserving Carnivores".

What is wrong with Romanian livestock guarding dogs? Hunting the grisly and other sketches; an account of the big game of the United States and its chase with horse, hound, and rifle , New York, London, G. Wolf and coyote trapping; an up-to-date wolf hunter's guide, giving the most successful methods of experienced "wolfers" for hunting and trapping these animals, also gives their habits in detail , Columbus, Ohio, A.

African palm civet N. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Family Viverridae includes Civets. Small-toothed palm civet A.

Sulawesi palm civet M. Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C. Hose's palm civet D. Banded palm civet H. Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. American black bear U. Molina's hog-nosed skunk C. Sunda stink badger M. Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B.

Western mountain coati N. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E. Australian sea lion N. South American sea lion O. New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z. Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M. Family Canidae includes dogs.

African wild dog L. African clawless otter A. North American river otter L. Saharan striped polecat I. African striped weasel P. Hinny Lord Morton's mare Mule Zebroid. Humanzee Hybrid orangutan Koolakamba. Polecat-ferret hybrid Polecat-mink hybrid. ABC Islands bear Grizzly—polar bear hybrid.

Armiger Law of heraldic arms Grant of arms Blazon. Conventional elements of coats of arms Escutcheon. National coat of arms Arms of dominion Ecclesiastical heraldry Burgher arms Civic heraldry Canting arms Attributed arms. Dolphin Ged Seahorse Lucy esox Scallop. Bat Bee Crapaudy toad Emmet ant Serpent. Phaleristics List of oldest heraldry Women in heraldry Socialist heraldry Vexillology. Retrieved from " https: Uses authors parameter CS1 Latin-language sources la Articles with French-language external links Webarchive template wayback links Articles with Finnish-language external links CS1 maint: Views Read View source View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies Wikiquote. This page was last edited on 13 September , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Eurasian wolf Canis lupus lupus. Canis lupus Linnaeus , [3].

Problems playing this file? Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canis lupus. Wikispecies has information related to Canis lupus. Atilax Marsh mongoose A. Crocuta Spotted hyena C. Large family listed below. Small family listed below. They include short chain oligo- saccharide polymers of fructose fructans and galactooligosaccharides GOS, stachyose , raffinose , disaccharides lactose , monosaccharides fructose , and sugar alcohols polyols , such as sorbitol , mannitol , xylitol and maltitol.

FODMAPs can cause digestive discomfort in some people, but they do not cause intestinal inflammation. It can ameliorate and mask the digestive symptoms of serious diseases, such as celiac disease , inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer , avoiding their correct diagnosis and therapy.

FODMAPs are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and subsequently fermented by the bacteria in the distal small and proximal large intestine. This is a normal phenomenon, common to everyone. The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence. Nevertheless, although FODMAP can cause certain digestive discomfort in some people, not only do they not cause intestinal inflammation, but they avoid it, because they produce beneficial alterations in the intestinal flora that contribute to maintain the good health of the colon.

FODMAPs are not the cause of irritable bowel syndrome nor other functional gastrointestinal disorders , but rather a person develops symptoms when the underlying bowel response is exaggerated or abnormal. Fructose malabsorption and lactose intolerance may produce IBS symptoms through the same mechanism but, unlike with other FODMAPs, poor absorption is found only in a minority of people.

It is possible to identify these two conditions with hydrogen and methane breath testing and thus eliminate the necessity for dietary compliance if possible. The significance of sources of FODMAPs varies through differences in dietary groups such as geography, ethnicity and other factors. Sources of fructans include wheat , rye , barley , onion , garlic , Jerusalem and globe artichoke , beetroot , dandelion leaves , the white part of leeks , the white part of spring onion , brussels sprouts , savoy cabbage and prebiotics such as fructooligosaccharides FOS , oligofructose and inulin.

Pulses and beans are the main dietary sources though green beans , canned lentils , sprouted mung beans , tofu not silken and tempeh contain comparatively low amounts. Polyols are found naturally in some fruit particularly stone fruits , including apples , apricots , avocados , blackberries , cherries , lychees , nectarines , peaches , pears , plums , prunes , watermelon and some vegetables, including cauliflower , mushrooms and mange-tout peas. They are also used as bulk sweeteners and include isomalt , maltitol , mannitol , sorbitol and xylitol.

People following a low-FODMAP diet may be able to tolerate moderate amounts of fructose and lactose, particularly if they have lactase persistence. Other sources confirm the suitability of these and suggest some additional foods. A low-FODMAP diet might help to improve short-term digestive symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome , [7] [8] [9] [10] but its long-term follow-up can have negative effects because it causes a detrimental impact on the gut microbiota and metabolome.

In addition, the use of a low-FODMAP diet without medical advice can lead to serious health risks, including nutritional deficiencies, cancer risk or even mortality. A low-FODMAP diet can ameliorate and mask the digestive symptoms of serious diseases that usually present digestive symptoms similar to those of irritable bowel syndrome, such as celiac disease , inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. It is crucial to conduct a complete medical evaluation before starting a low-FODMAP diet to ensure a correct diagnosis and that the appropriate therapy can be undertaken.

Since the consumption of gluten is suppressed or reduced with a low-FODMAP diet, the improvement of the digestive symptoms with this diet may not be related to the withdrawal of the FODMAPs, but of gluten, indicating the presence of an unrecognized celiac disease, avoiding its diagnosis and correct treatment, with the consequent risk of several serious health complications, including various types of cancer.

A low-FODMAP diet is highly restrictive in various groups of nutrients, can be impractical to follow in the long-term and may add an unnecessary financial burden. The basis of many functional gastrointestinal disorders FGIDs is distension of the intestinal lumen. Such luminal distension may induce pain, a sensation of bloating , abdominal distension and motility disorders.

Therapeutic approaches seek to reduce factors that lead to distension, particularly of the distal small and proximal large intestine. Iron is a key component in substances that carry oxygen to the cells and holds it there.

Acids like the acetic acid found in apple cider vinegar help release iron in the food you eat and make it more available to be a building block for carrying- oxygen to the cells.

When your using this as a belly fat detox you can use a straw to avoid contact with your teeth. Brush your teeth 30 min or so later.

I would suggest that you do your own research and see what works for you. I just added 1 tablespoon of vinegar to 16 oz of water or I drank it straight, as a shot followed by a cup of water , before each meal 2 times per day to see detoxing and weight loss benefit. You can also sip it over the course of the day. Raw, organic, unfiltered and unpasteurized apple cider is what you want to use. I suggest the Braggs brand of apple cider vinegar it has the most beneficial benefits.

If this is your first time be careful, it could be too strong for your system so take it slowly. Apple Cider should be treated like a nutritional supplement, like taking vitamins or dietary fiber. This is not a weight loss quick fix solution, but it will definitely help you belly fat detox efforts.

This may happen occasionally. But remember you still need to eat right and embrace exercise regularly. Here is my recommendation for using the apple cider vinegar to lose weight. Eat two to three servings of fresh fruit each day. Apples, watermelon, strawberries and cherries contain an acid that will help to detoxify the body.

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