Milk, one of the most commonly-consumed dairy products, is a well-rounded beverage with healthy amounts of protein, carbohydrates and fat. High amounts of saturated fat in coconut may also contribute to weight gain. Coconut milk helps to boost your immune system. Fermented Ingredients We provide a full line of beneficial prebiotics for young animals that offer outstanding functionality and processability. A turkey burger or a sirloin burger? Bridget's Revelations The Natural Law 1.
Complete, balanced nutrition to help gain or maintain a healthy weight
The exorphin in milk is called casein , a substance that breaks down in the human stomach to produce the opioid peptide casomorphin.
In the early s it was hypothesized that casomorphin can cause or aggravate autism spectrum disorders ,   and casein-free diets are widely promoted. Studies supporting these claims have had significant flaws, and the data are inadequate to guide autism treatment recommendations. The most recent assessment by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research found that most individual epidemiological studies showed increased risk of prostate cancer with increased intake of milk or dairy products.
There is limited evidence suggesting that milk and dairy products are a cause of prostate cancer. Medical studies also have shown a possible link between milk consumption and the exacerbation of diseases such as Crohn's disease ,  Hirschsprung's disease —mimicking symptoms in babies with existing cow's milk allergies,  and the aggravation of Behçet's disease.
Milk must be offered at every meal if a United States school district wishes to get reimbursement from the federal government. Seventy-one percent of the milk served in U. Though some flavored milk products use artificial sweeteners instead. The Boulder, Colorado school district banned flavored milk in and instead installed a dispenser that keeps the milk colder.
Cows produce bovine growth hormone naturally, but some producers administer an additional recombinant version of BGH which is produced through genetically engineered E. Bovine growth hormone also stimulates liver production of insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF1.
Food and Drug Administration ,  the National Institutes of Health  and the World Health Organization  have reported that both of these compounds are safe for human consumption at the amounts present. Cows receiving rBGH supplements may more frequently contract an udder infection known as mastitis. Mastitis, among other diseases, may be responsible for the fact that levels of white blood cells in milk vary naturally.
Vegans and some other vegetarians do not consume milk for reasons mostly related to animal rights and environmental concerns. They may object to features of dairy farming including the necessity of keeping dairy cows pregnant, the killing of almost all the male offspring of dairy cows either by disposal soon after birth, for veal production, or for beef , the routine separation of mother and calf soon after birth, other perceived inhumane treatment of dairy cattle, and culling of cows after their productive lives.
Some have criticized the American government's promotion of milk consumption. Their main concern is the financial interest that the American government has taken in the dairy industry, promoting milk as the best source of calcium. Milk production is also resource intensive. On a global weighted average, for the production of a given volume of milk, a thousand times as much water has to be used. Milk preserved by the UHT process does not need to be refrigerated before opening and has a much longer shelf life six months than milk in ordinary packaging.
It is typically sold unrefrigerated in the UK, U. Lactose-free milk can be produced by passing milk over lactase enzyme bound to an inert carrier. Once the molecule is cleaved, there are no lactose ill effects. The only noticeable difference from regular milk is a slightly sweeter taste due to the generation of glucose by lactose cleavage.
It does not, however, contain more glucose, and is nutritionally identical to regular milk. Lactose of low-lactose level cow's milk products, ranging from ice cream to cheese, is enzymatically hydrolysed into glucose and galactose.
The ultra-pasteurization process, combined with aseptic packaging, ensures a long shelf life. In , Valio launched a lactose-free milk drink that is not sweet like HYLA milk but has the fresh taste of ordinary milk. Valio patented the chromatographic separation method to remove lactose. Valio also markets these products in Sweden , Estonia , Belgium ,  and the United States, where the company says ultrafiltration is used. In the UK, where an estimated 4.
Lactose-free and lactose-reduced milk can also be produced via ultra filtration , which removes smaller molecules such as lactose and water while leaving calcium and proteins behind. Milk produced via these methods has a lower sugar content than regular milk.
In areas where the cattle and often the people live indoors, commercially sold milk commonly has vitamin D added to it to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation. Reduced-fat milks often have added vitamin A palmitate to compensate for the loss of the vitamin during fat removal; in the United States this results in reduced fat milks having a higher vitamin A content than whole milk.
Milk often has flavoring added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales. Chocolate milk has been sold for many years and has been followed more recently by strawberry milk and others. Some nutritionists have criticized flavored milk for adding sugar, usually in the form of high-fructose corn syrup , to the diets of children who are already commonly obese in the U.
Due to the short shelf life of normal milk, it used to be delivered to households daily in many countries; however, improved refrigeration at home, changing food shopping patterns because of supermarkets, and the higher cost of home delivery mean that daily deliveries by a milkman are no longer available in most countries.
With time, due to the steadily increasing cost of collecting, transporting, storing and cleaning glass bottles, they were replaced by cardboard cartons. A number of designs were used, including a tetrahedron which could be close-packed without waste space, and could not be knocked over accidentally. No more crying over spilt milk. However, the industry eventually settled on a design similar to that used in the United States.
A significant addition to the marketplace has been "long-life" milk UHT , generally available in 1 and 2 liter rectangular cardboard cartons. In urban and suburban areas where there is sufficient demand, home delivery is still available, though in suburban areas this is often 3 times per week rather than daily.
Another significant and popular addition to the marketplace has been flavored milks — for example, as mentioned above, Farmers Union Iced Coffee outsells Coca-Cola in South Australia. In rural India , milk is home delivered, daily, by local milkmen carrying bulk quantities in a metal container, usually on a bicycle. In other parts of metropolitan India , milk is usually bought or delivered in plastic bags or cartons via shops or supermarkets. The current milk chain flow in India is from milk producer to milk collection agent.
Then it is transported to a milk chilling center and bulk transported to the processing plant, then to the sales agent and finally to the consumer. A survey by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India found that nearly 70 percent of samples had not conformed to the standards set for milk.
The study found that due to lack of hygiene and sanitation in milk handling and packaging, detergents used during cleaning operations were not washed properly and found their way into the milk. About eight percent of samples in the survey were found to have detergents, which are hazardous to health. In Pakistan , milk is supplied in jugs. Milk has been a staple food, especially among the pastoral tribes in this country.
Since the late s, milk-buying patterns have changed drastically in the UK. The classic milkman , who travels his local milk round route using a milk float often battery powered during the early hours and delivers milk in 1 pint glass bottles with aluminium foil tops directly to households, has almost disappeared.
Two of the main reasons for the decline of UK home deliveries by milkmen are household refrigerators which lessen the need for daily milk deliveries and private car usage which has increased supermarket shopping. Another factor is that it is cheaper to purchase milk from a supermarket than from home delivery.
In , more than 2. Milk is hardly ever sold in glass bottles in UK shops. In the United States, glass milk bottles have been replaced mostly with milk cartons and plastic jugs. Gallons of milk are almost always sold in jugs, while half gallons and quarts may be found in both paper cartons and plastic jugs, and smaller sizes are almost always in cartons.
The "half pint" Glass milk bottles are now rare. Most people purchase milk in bags, plastic bottles, or plastic-coated paper cartons. Ultraviolet UV light from fluorescent lighting can alter the flavor of milk, so many companies that once distributed milk in transparent or highly translucent containers are now using thicker materials that block the UV light. Milk comes in a variety of containers with local variants:. When raw milk is left standing for a while, it turns " sour ".
This is the result of fermentation , where lactic acid bacteria ferment the lactose in the milk into lactic acid. Prolonged fermentation may render the milk unpleasant to consume. This fermentation process is exploited by the introduction of bacterial cultures e.
The reduced pH from lactic acid accumulation denatures proteins and causes the milk to undergo a variety of different transformations in appearance and texture, ranging from an aggregate to smooth consistency.
Some of these products include sour cream , yogurt , cheese, buttermilk , viili , kefir , and kumis. See Dairy product for more information. Pasteurization of cow's milk initially destroys any potential pathogens and increases the shelf life, [ citation needed ] but eventually results in spoilage that makes it unsuitable for consumption.
This causes it to assume an unpleasant odor , and the milk is deemed non-consumable due to unpleasant taste and an increased risk of food poisoning. In raw milk, the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, under suitable conditions, ferments the lactose present to lactic acid.
The increasing acidity in turn prevents the growth of other organisms, or slows their growth significantly. During pasteurization, however, these lactic acid bacteria are mostly destroyed. Most milk is pasteurized by heating briefly and then refrigerated to allow transport from factory farms to local markets. The spoilage of milk can be forestalled by using ultra-high temperature UHT treatment.
Milk so treated can be stored unrefrigerated for several months until opened but has a characteristic "cooked" taste. Condensed milk , made by removing most of the water, can be stored in cans for many years, unrefrigerated, as can evaporated milk. The most durable form of milk is powdered milk , which is produced from milk by removing almost all water. Freezing of milk can cause fat globule aggregation upon thawing, resulting in milky layers and butterfat lumps.
These can be dispersed again by warming and stirring the milk. Milk is used to make yogurt , cheese, ice milk , pudding , hot chocolate and french toast.
Milk is often added to dry breakfast cereal , porridge and granola. Milk is often served in coffee and tea. Steamed milk is used to prepare espresso -based drinks such as cafe latte. The importance of milk in human culture is attested to by the numerous expressions embedded in our languages, for example, "the milk of human kindness", the expression "there's no use crying over spilt milk" which means don't "be unhappy about what cannot be undone" , "don't milk the ram" this means "to do or attempt something futile" and "Why buy a cow when you can get milk for free?
In Greek mythology , the Milky Way was formed after the trickster god Hermes suckled the infant Heracles at the breast of Hera , the queen of the gods, while she was asleep. In many African and Asian countries, butter is traditionally made from fermented milk rather than cream. It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented milk. Holy books have also mentioned milk. The Bible contains references to the " Land of Milk and Honey.
The Ramadan fast is traditionally broken with a glass of milk and dates. Abhisheka is conducted by Hindu and Jain priests, by pouring libations on the image of a deity being worshipped, amidst the chanting of mantras.
Usually offerings such as milk, yogurt , ghee , honey may be poured among other offerings depending on the type of abhishekam being performed. A milksop is an "effeminate spiritless man," an expression which is attested to in the late 14th century. Its soft blandness served as inspiration for the name of the timid and ineffectual comic strip character Caspar Milquetoast , drawn by H. Webster from to Milk toast also appeared in Disney's Follow Me Boys as an undesirable breakfast for the aging main character Lem Siddons.
To "milk" someone, in the vernacular of many English-speaking countries, is to take advantage of the person, by analogy to the way a farmer "milks" a cow and takes its milk.
The word "milk" has had many slang meanings over time. In the 19th century, milk was used to describe a cheap and very poisonous alcoholic drink made from methylated spirits methanol mixed with water. The word was also used to mean defraud, to be idle, to intercept telegrams addressed to someone else, and a weakling or "milksop.
Besides serving as a beverage or source of food, milk has been described as used by farmers and gardeners as an organic fungicide and fertilizer,    however, its effectiveness is debated. Diluted milk solutions have been demonstrated to provide an effective method of preventing powdery mildew on grape vines, while showing it is unlikely to harm the plant.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the fluid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. For milk derived from plants, see Plant milk. For the line of chocolate products, see Cadbury Dairy Milk.
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The vast majority will be homogenised, to stop the cream from separating from the rest of the milk, and pasteurised, or gently heated, to improve its shelf-life. UHT milk is sterilised with heat, so can be kept at room temperature, unopened, for many months.
This process slightly alters the taste, however. Both evaporated and condensed milks have undergone more sustained heat treatment to reduce their water content: They can be kept at room temperature for long periods, and taste and look very different to fresh milk; these days they are predominantly used in baking and desserts.
Milk should be kept in the fridge. Milk recipes A highly nutritious liquid, milk is a very versatile kitchen ingredient. Béchamel sauce by Delia Smith. Real proper custard by Mary Berry.