Only a spikelike bone, the urostyle, remains as evidence that primitive frogs probably had tails. Neither the lissamphibians nor any of the extinct groups of amphibians were the ancestors of the group of tetrapods that gave rise to reptiles. This article needs additional citations for verification. More generally a biomarker is anything that can be used as an indicator of a particular disease state or some other physiological state of an organism. Swamps and large water bodies are inhabited by different Reptiles such as crocodiles, alligators, certain turtles and snakes. Micropuncture of superficial nephrons in avian Sturnus vulgaris kidney.
The claims for weight loss are nothing short of outlandish and there is real science that suggests the whole thing is a hoax. Studies that claim to have found weight loss were carried out on animals. Studies involving humans are for the most part badly designed.
A few quality studies have been carried out over the years, starting in 1998 with a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 135 adults over 12 weeks published in The Journal of the American Medical Association.
They found no evidence that hydroxycitric acid, the active ingredient in weight loss products made from garcinia cambogia, produced significant weight loss.