The immune system is the key to staying healthy
It ends up being I would love your thoughts. But, what a huge gap in price! Emily Recipes to Nourish says: We exclusively bf for 6 months and due to tongue tie and latching issues, I had supply issues and baby was a slow gainer. Ive followed your recipe to the exact except im using infant care multivitamin.
Herbs that help to boost and support the immune system
Some people like to take the dry ingredients, oils and water separately with them and mix as they go. You will find your groove and what works for you! Also, if your blender mix happens to be too hot, wait until it cools to add the probiotics, they are live bacteria that are temperature sensitive and are destroyed by heat. This recipe saved us. So many parents are spending too much on store-bought formula full of crappy ingredients, even the organic brands!!
I wish I had known this the first time around. I had trouble with my first as well and would have made this had I known. All of it is in conventional store-bought formula and some of it is even in organic store-bought formula. I hear from a lot of mamas who have trouble breastfeeding, they think their only option is store-bought formula and many feel so dejected. Share this post with a mama you know who could use this recipe and any of the other homemade formula recipe links that resonate with you and let mamas know they have better options!
So many questions are asked and answered and ideas are given on how to store it and make homemade goat milk formula on the go. This is optional if you are breastfeeding. If you know of a better one, leave it in the comments. A mama wrote me and said this recipe has saved her! Her husband who is a math whiz broke down the cost comparison to store-bought formula organic, I believe.
His conclusion was the homemade goat milk formula is about half the cost of store-bought formula. But, what a huge gap in price!
And, better ingredients all around. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. I am not a doctor or medical professional.
Please speak to your physician before using this recipe, always do your research and make your own informed decision. I am not responsible and will not be held liable for the use of this recipe. This is a recipe that my pediatrician approved for my child. It works for her and she is thriving.
I am simply sharing it as a testimonial. A huge thank you to Joe Stout, M. Rama is a Holistic Nutritionist and Mama to 2. She resides in the Pacific NW and enjoys good food with great company, date nights with her husband and quality time with her Littles. What we eat matters. When we focus on whole, unprocessed foods and begin to lessen our toxic load in all aspects of our life, we become nourished and we heal at the cellular level.
I wish that I had this recipe 8 years ago when my eldest was born, and 3 years ago when my second daughter was born. We are both very lactose intolerant! When we finally got her home we kept her on soy formula. Now I read the many awful Monsanto-approved ingredients that are in soy formula and I feel like an ogre. My youngest was born in another state.
The hospital I had her at were not breast feeding advocates, they were breastfeeding nazis! No matter how hard I tried, or how many strangers hands manipulated my boobs into place, I was not making enough milk for my daughter.
She was born with jaundice, which was made much worse by the fact that the hospital would only allow her my breast milk, which was minimal. By the time we were released she was starving and had horrible jaundice. I bought a breast milk pump and soy formula and we got to work feeding my girl. After one particularly bad episode of this I lost it and panicked over the pain they were inflicting on my baby.
This was due to an inept nurse trying ten different heel pricks while my daughter lay there screaming. Eventually we began giving her goat milk. I will be sharing you recipe with some moms to be! Thank you for sharing your story.
Mine lost a pound at her one month mark and I was handed cans of formula. Glad your kiddos are doing well now! Live and learn, huh? Hi I am looking to supplement my 8 wk old breastfed daughter. I am wondering at what age you started feeding your daughter this recipe and how many ounces she had a day. I always recommend checking with your Ped, but we started our little girl on this at 1 month old because I had a low thyroid and low milk supply and she lost a pound.
Best to you and your little one. This formula saved my sanity, my relationship wirh my husband and my 3 year old and my baby!! The change after switching her to this is almost like magic, especially since i have tried every formula out there inculding neocate and elecare nothing made my baby feel better!
So thank u for giving a simple recipe! SO glad this has worked for you guys. It saved us, too! My wonderful friend and midwife to my two older boys tarrin shared this with me my six month old son just had his first batch and loved it he almost drank a full 8 oz!
So thank u thank u thank u!!! Tarrin was my midwife, too! My 1st born birth story is on here somewhere. However it zings my baby. He gets hyper from the maple syrup, I think. Anyone else have this problem? FG, I am hoping and preparing to breastfeed our adopted baby due Feb I am also trying to think ahead in case I need to supplement if I cannot stimulate a full supply of breastmilk.
I am NOT willing to use store-bought formula because of the toxic, genetically modified and potentially harmful ingredients including the organic brands. I am discouraged by how expensive a healthy alternative is. Do you have trouble with the oils being too thick in the bottle or having difficulty coming through the nipple? Do you think this formula recipe would be compatible with a supplemental nursing system very small tubing? Thank you so much for your testimony and encouragement!
Hey, if the formula is heated a bit, it should go through just fine. We hope to be where you are as well someday, congrats!! In the 8 oz recipe 1tbsp sugar is almost 15g sugar, the goat milk is 11g sugar 1 scoop, and. Otherwise the formula is solid! Looking into this for my 6 month old. How much are all of your ingredients on avg? Do you typically run out of everything at a time? My wallet is in desperate need!
I talk about the cost breakdown at the bottom. It is less than half the cost of store-bought formula. I got my goat milk powder online. I have a different whole milk goat powder can you tell me what the amount is per scoop in this recipe? Also I just want to add that this is a great recipe and thank you for posting! Thank you for this great recipe! I have a question, How do you serve the bottle? I have a question… Do you give the bottle cold from the fridge or warm it up before you give it to the baby?
Thanks again, -Pam V. Thank you in advance. What would be your thoughts on using pasteurised goats milk in this formula. I think it would be wonderful as long as you dilute per age and add what else is needed! Thanks for sharing your resources too. I love hearing these kind of stories! I also felt much better about what I was giving him. I know, feels good to have these options. Hi, my baby is allergic to olive oil, avocado oil and codfish. What natural sources can I use to replace these items?
My friend has a baby and is struggling with finding the right and healthy formula, so I will definitely send her your article. I feel for her. Thanks for sharing it with her. I got pregnant with my 2nd baby when 1 was only 10 months. I know lot of people who need this recipe! Maybe we just know more now as far as what babies need nutritionally?
Thanks for sharing the recipe with other mamas! This is so important for moms to know there are other options than the supermarket formula variety. There is so much misunderstanding, heartbreak, and guilt surrounding breastfeeding, or, on the other extreme, not caring at all. Such a hard thing to navigate as a mom. And yes, coupled with sleep deprivation and hormones, makes for a lot of tears, at least it did for me! I went through all the feelings for sure and finally came to a place of balance and found what worked.
Moms have to find what works and for a lot of mamas, having a better option can really help with all of the emotions that come with trying so hard to feed our babies the best we can give them. Thank you for this post. When I first read Nourishing Traditions, the formula alternative recipe really stood out to me as impressive and an exciting alternative.
I love hearing your story and adaptation. So happy for you all. Great alternative to chemical laden store-bought formula! Totally going to recommend this, and also I feel like I have one less thing to worry about in case I have issues with breastfeeding. I went through the same dilemma. Praying all goes fantastic with breast feeding. I, too, had trouble with breastfeeding.
This formula is such a great alternative to the GMO-laden, corn syrup crap in the mainstream formulas. I hope that this post reaches many moms and babies! I am confused about how much powdered goat milk to use.. I have seen this recipe quite a few times and each one differs a little. Is it 4 scoops using the scoop that came in the meyenburg can? I went over and over this bc of the same confusion until I created the recipe in the post to be exactly the amounts that would work for Meyenberg full fat goat milk powder.
It is 4 scoops of Meyenberg goat powder the scoop it came with and the amount of oils listed. Up until now she has been on soy formula and has really bad eczema on her little cheeks. Our recipe differs quite a bit from this one though.
She has us adding aloe vera juice, chlorophyll and primrose oil. So far, my baby has loved this formula and is taking it great!
No change in her eczema yet but I figure it takes some time for the soy to process out of her body. Thanks for sharing your recipe! I would stay away from anything soy, especially for baby, soy is overly processed and full of estrogens and not a health food as it was once assumed.
Carotenoids like vitamin A beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, and lutein. Powerful antioxidant vitamins C, D, E, and even the elusive vitamin K. A higher concentration of chlorophyll than any other plant on planet earth. And the super antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid. A whole slew of the brain-healthy, energizing B-vitamins — thiamine B1 , riboflavin B2 , pyridoxine B6 , niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, vitamin B12, biotin, choline.
Primrose oil is also used for eczema. You may already know this stuff, but 2 things that strike me as I read your comment:. Full strength raw goat milk or goat milk powder HAS to be diluted by half bc of its protein content. The root of eczema starts in the gut.
If the gut is compromised, eczema occurs. Once you heal the gut, the eczema will go away. Next, you want to heal and seal the gut lining and add in soothing liquids and foods to do that.
Gelatin is what heals and soothes the gut lining and brings inflammation down. Also, the gelatin powder I include in my goat milk formula helps digestion and soothes the gut as well. It is like bone broth in powder form.
Including bone broth and bone broth powder is incredibly healing and nourishing for baby. The aloe will also soothe the gut. Keep doing that if it is well tolerated. The gut also needs more good bacteria than bad.
Your baby needs probiotics the good bacteria! Probiotics will repopulate the gut and strengthen immunity and fight the bad guys so your child is less susceptible to sickness and other pathogens that attack our bodies. Here are some resources, hope this helps! It definitely helped us! Also, goat, sheep and A2 cows produce milk with more A2 beta-casein proteins than A1 beta-casein proteins.
This means these proteins are easier to digest and do not produce most of the allergies to dairy we see in America. A2 milk is produces by the brown Jersey cows not the black and white Holstein cows. DAILY in 1 bottle, then increase as baby gets older. I sprinkle it in everything, smoothies, raw juice, sandwiches, yogurt, whatever, as long as my kiddos get their daily dose: Why the particular strand of probiotics I mentioned above? I also want to include the great lakes gelatin powder as you said it heals the gut.
Is this okay for my son who may have food allergies? Skin test came out negative and we are waiting for results on the delayed reaction test. Anyway, thank you so much for this post. You can read more here: Yes to the Great Lakes Gelatin. Check out the Gut and Psychology book. Bone broth is used to heal leaky gut bc of the gelatin itself and Great Lakes Gelatin is just that, gelatin in powder form.
Because it is hydrolyzed and in powder form it is much easier to assimilate and digest, great for babies, kids and adults with food allergies. We are loving it so far, thank you so much! Has anyone else had this problem?
My child did not go through this, but every child is different. Do you know if your baby has a sensitivity to dairy? Are you using every ingredient in the formula as written including powdered probiotics? If you are using the powdered probiotics, is this new to your child? Were you giving your child probiotics or breast milk prior to the introduction of the homemade goat milk formula?
It can simply be a diaper rash with common trouble shooting or it can be a gut issue or food intolerance. See Gut and Psychology Syndrome book and websites for more info: When this happens the bad bacteria start to die off and release toxins as they do, this can cause a wide range of reactions in children and adults. One other thing, oatmeal and grains can also not be tolerated well, especially if you child does have a compromised gut.
He has only gotten a max of 4 oz per day because we EP long story. He wants to be held all day and will only catnap if held and wakes sooner than his typical 20 min if put down to sleep during the day…. Thank you for sharing this post and being willing to give your honest opinion one mom to another.
I was curious if this would be ok for a 7 week old? We are on a lactose free formula off the shelf after discovering organic cows formula gave him silent reflux. He is now constipated and not himself, although less refluxy. I am at my wits end and so devastated I cannot breast feed due to previous surgery. What do you think? Thank you for sharing your story! Yes, we started our daughter on it at about 6 weeks. Talk with your pediatrician if in doubt.
You can definitely try this recipe and see how he reacts. Do you know if the lactose is for sure the issue? It could also be the casein or both. My daughter was mostly breastfed with little supplementation until 7 mths, I was dairy-free and she still had bad reflux on mostly breastmilk.
When I was told at her 1-month check-up I had to supplement some because she was losing weight, I tried organic, store-bought formula for two weeks. Her reflux got so much worse. She was throwing up and spitting up like crazy. All of the other ingredients are soothing to the gut like coconut oil, olive oil, gelatin powder, probiotics, cod liver oil, etc.
You can increase the blackstrap molasses a bit to help with constipation, the probiotics will help with that, too. Just showed my Dr your recipe and she loved it! We have been given the all clear. We are unsure if lactose is the issue, it runs in the family, it was a suggestion to try lactose free formula to see if reflux cleared up.
Whilst we initially got good results at first, it is still there and the constipation is awful. I would feel so much more comfortable feeding him something home made, I can control the variables a lot more! I am so sorry to hear of your daughters troubles, it seems to be so common that many of us health conscious mamas struggle with store bought. It really goes against everything I believe. I am studying to become a nutritionist myself, as well as a herbalist so DIY sits more comfortably.
At present we are mixing up his formula with chamomile tea in place of plain water. This is making him so much more comfortable and less gassy. I am curious if we could continue this with your recipe? Also, if he has issues with goats milk powder, do ou think that using goats milk turned into kefir could work or too much overload for his belly? Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions, I truly do appreciate it.
It is tough to find people willing to discuss this as many are scared to do anything different than breastmilk or formula off the shelf. Yeah, store-bought is so gnarly: Cool that you are going to school for nutrition and herbalism!
Give it two weeks on the homemade goat milk formula. Let me know how it goes! Thank you for the reply again! I have one final question I promise. We are using a different full fat powder as we are in australia. Any chance you could let me know how many mLs make up the scoop you use for the recipe? Sorry to be such a pain! Just nervous about getting ratios wrong. Thank you again X. Whatever the directions say, just cut the powder portion in half.
So, if it says 2 Tbs. Does that makes sense and help at all? I just had to let you know that this recipe has helped us so much. He is a different child.
All skin issues cleared up within 10 hours, he is sleeping, eating good sized meals instead of bare minimums, going to toilet with ease and twice a day and is actually happy and engaging with us. Thank you from the bottom of my heart, will be sharing with all I know! I bet it is a combo of homeopathy and the goat milk formula. They are both wonderful.
Our family has really gotten into using essential oils this pasty year like herbs but 1 drop of EOs is way more potent and they have done wonders for us, so I know what you mean about combining good nutrition with plant support. So glad your little guy is feeling better! Thanks for sharing this recipe, mamas need to know they have options!
How do you use the chamomile tea with the formula? Do you use it on every feeding on just 1 bottle, also how much water you use for one tea bag. I heard good things about chamomile tea. Hi ive been using your formula for my son for the past two months and he really loves it! He has a dairy allergy and was unable to tolerate any other formulas but seems to do well with yours and it makes me feel much better knowing that its all natural.
I do have one concern though. He had his labwork checked and he was anemic and his iron was pretty low. He doesnt really have any anemia symptoms but it worried me that it was low. I give him a multivitamin daily that has iron in it but i give it in his formula so not sure if the goat milk could be blocking the absorption of the iron?
Was curious what your thoughts are on this. The doctor wants to put him on conventional formula but i really dont want to as his stomach is so sensitive and doesnt tolerate them well and he hates the taste of them. Glad to hear it is working for him! First question, are you using the recipe exactly? If you are using the recipe to the T, just add a bit of blackstrap molasses to each bottle for iron and because he is at the age to eat solids, he should be getting iron-rich foods like liver. Sounds gross, but chicken and beef liver are one of the best things you can feed baby.
Egg yolk and bone broth, too! They are both incredibly nutrient-dense. The goat milk formula will not block the absorption of iron unless your son has a separate issue with iron absorption, which your doc can let you know about that.
If he was strictly breasted, it would be the same situation. Vitamin C rich foods are good to add as well as they increase iron absorption! Look up some of those, too. This is an excellent question and requires a bit of explanation. When a baby is born full term they usually have a 6 month supply of iron that they have stored up while still in the womb. Therefore, from months, the iron requirement for infants is only.
The formula that I created will deliver the. Usually by the time a baby gets to 6 months, they begin eating a variety of solid foods and as long as parents are careful to include iron rich foods winter squash, sweet potato etc.
Are you able at all to estimate the amount of protein and vitamins contained within an 8-oz serving? Has anybody calculated that for you?
Our pediatrician is concerned that if we switch, our 5. Thanks so much for the response! I did add it back in the past couple weeks but maybe that did it? Hi there, A quick question. What would happen is it was cut down? You absolutely MUST have the sugar.
I use real maple syrup. Breastmilk is naturally high in sugar and provides the necessary carbohydrate for baby. One of my Peds patients cut the sugar back and the baby stopped growing properly. Sugar is mostly thought of as bad, but in this case it is a necessity. He developed terrible reflux at 2 weeks and even though I was dairy free, still had bits of soy in my diet. When he had been a couple days old he was given normal formula to supplement because of his terrible jaundice and drop in weight he dropped a pound and a half in 4 days.
He reacted and got hives within 30 minutes. I ended up nursing around the clock for 3 days to get his weight back up but he was miserable and tired, which carried on for the remainder of my time nursing him, which is why he eventually went on a 3 day breast strike and I was forced to make the switch. From our previous experience, I was terrified to offer him anything with milk as I was certain he was severely allergic. And since I was told most dairy allergic babies and allergic to soy, we went straight onto the hypoallergenic formula alimentum.
The milk protein is broken down and there is minimal soy ingredients. I sometimes wonder if the broken down milk protein is still too much for him to handle.
Anyway, I was researching goats milk formula and I am familiar with both the recipes you listed that you based your formula from. I would really love to try this, but am so nervous that he will have a severe reaction. Any input would be appreciated.
I have come across many other goat milk formula recipes and they say to add acerola as a vitamin C supplest. I thought about adding that ingredient as an option. We have been through so much the past 4 months trying forcing our baby to drink neocate per dr orders.
Little one has severe reflux and a milk protein allergy. Finally researched goat milk formula. It has been a full week and the change is remarkable. He loves drinking his bottle now and has doubled his intake!
I have a question about the yeast. If the goat milk powder has folic acid is the yeast still needed? I see that meyenberg brand has vit d and folic acid in it. Thank you for your time! I have enjoyed reading your blog! You would probably be fine without it, just check with your Ped about the daily recommendations for your baby.
Thank you for taking the time to respond! Your recipe is the one we have been using and I love it. I just need to get the yeast!
I just had a few questions. He was projectile vomiting and screaming in gas pains on my breast milk and formula. My friend suggested goats milk formula. And also when you make larger batches like 32oz how do you keep the coconut oil from hardening?
Do you heat up all 32 oz each time you make a bottle and pour out what you need? Wanted to know why you cut the suggested level scoops of goat milk from 2 to 1 for 8oz. We are switching to this but we have to consider the cal count. Do you know what it is?
I hope it works well for your little one. I have a 5 month old that I breastfeed but when I leave her with my mom for a night I have a hard time pumping enough milk and I am just curious if this formula is safe to give her once or twice if I run out of milk or give her this instead of breastfeeding if I am not able to anymore…. Also, do you have a hospital grade pump, those are fantastic! Really made the difference in pumping for me.
So far so good! I was scared to give her anything besides breast milk but I am feeling good about this! I also have a few questions.
Once the formula is made does it always have to be warmed up to be fed to her? We are going on a trip really soon and I am just curious if we will have to stop and warm up a bottle or can I just mix up all the ingredients and give it to her like that?
Or will I need to be carrying hot water with me and make it according to the directions one bottle at a time or can I premake it for the 32 ounces and have in a cooler and just pour it for her in a bottle?
If that makes any sense! This is completely up to you. The downside of it not being warmed up is the coconut oil hardens when cold so it gets clumpy and all weird in the bottle and you WANT those nutrients to get to your child vs.
We honestly never carried warm water with us. We would make 32 oz. It always worked out. Post back if you found a neat tip or trick we could all use!
My son has been labeled as FTT because he is unable to consume all of the calories he needs. He currently has a gtube and I give him pediasmart soy formula because that was the only organic option in was given at the hospital, which I hate.
He is 2 years old. Im looking for alternative homemade formulas and I came across this recipe that I really like. Is this recipe strictly for an infant or can I use it for a toddler 2 year old that needs to put on some weight?
I still give it to my daughter daily bc of all the nutrients and she is now 18 mths. Definitely include everything else in the recipe as stated. Coconut oil is fantastic, probiotics are huge! And yes, bravo for ditching the soy!!
Such gnarly stuff for anyone really, but boys in particular bc of the phytoestrogens. My little gal was losing weight at her 1 month I mostly breast fed her and supplemented with this and she thrived and is still thriving! I will of course check with the pediatrician as well. First of all, thank you so much for sharing this with us! I have a 6 month old who I still breastfeed but I do not pump enough to leave with my aunt who babysits her , so she is given formula from 8: After finding out about goat milk through a post on instagram I began my research and wish I had known about goat milk before I came back to work at 3 months.
Should I just give her what the can calls for without the added ingredients? Also, should I still cut the scoops in half like you did in the recipe?
My baby is 3. Is this like shelf formula where it has to be used within the hour or can a big batch be made each morning and refrigerated for the day? She is currently only taking 4 oz every 3 hours. So if I make up the 32oz batch, I can have it in the fridge for how long? Lol Does it smell funny btw? One question — I would love to use raw goat milk, but my husband is very opposed. I have access to pasteurized milk NOT Ultra-pasteurized, like Meyenberg fluid goat milk from a local goat farm.
What are your thoughts on that as opposed to a powdered form? It sounds like that is the closest thing to raw without being raw. Just note the part in the post where it calls for dilution. Once your babe is over 1 they can have full strength bc their kidneys can handle it, but before then goat milk MUST be diluted with water and the other nutrients added in bc it is lacking.
Yes, breast milk is very sweet and the majority of its nutritional profile consists of carbohydrates in the form of sugar. I wondered the same thing at first. I always say run it by your Ped to be sure. Also, just make it just like the recipe calls for and if you are not breastfeeding add the liquid, baby multi-vitamins.
I started feeding this to my son when he was about a week old. He is now almost a month, and he started spitting up a large amount of it and is VERY gassy and cries and cries. This milk has been found to cause a dangerous condition called metabolic acidosis when fed to infants in the first month of life. Were you able to read the entire post? The gelatin powder is specific to the kind I listed, it is hydrolyzed gelatin, not regular gelatin. Once gels and the other is for quick absorption and easy on the tummy hydrolyzed.
Goat milk may not be for everyone, but I have not heard of anyone having issues with it yet. Maybe take the gelatin out for now and if you can get the kind I linked to the green can. It actually aids in digestion and is soothing for the gut. You can even use it everyday for yourself to improve gut health, skin, nails, joints and as a protein powder replacement. It is full of collagen, amino acids, and minerals. Just follow the recipe as exact as you can and you should be good to go.
If he still has trouble, you might have to try something else. That is a good question! Thank you so much for posting this! For babies, though, they HAVE to have it. The majority of breast milk is carbohydrates in the form of lactose, milk sugar. All of the options listed are all forms of sugar and you can pick your fave: I personally used raw org.
I always say have your Ped look over the recipe to make sure. Thank you so much for posting this recipe and the links to the exact ingredients on Amazon — what a time and stress saver! I just ordered everything and am excited to get started! I have been breast feeding but not producing enough and having to supplement about one bottle per day. It makes me so sad. Really hoping she likes this! Unrelated and per your field — do you ever do any personal consulting for meal planning with leaky gut?
I cannot have gluten of coarse, but also am now allergic to oats and need to sprout any grain before eating it rice, quinoa, ect …I cannot have any dairy either. Just wondered if you know anything about these autoimmune diseases and if I could hire you to help me with meals for myself so that I can keep producing milk for my baby.
Either way — thank you so so very much for this formula recipe!! It was a life saver for us when I was going through low milk supply. Mine struck after my 2nd was born. The brain fog is aw-ful. I would love to work with you. We can Skype, email, chat or talk whatever works for you. I will send you more info.
My practitioner site is under construction at the moment. With a healthy immune system, I am rarely sick and when I do somehow manage to catch someone else's bug, I am sick for a much shorter period of time.
Some of the health factors that affect your immune system are:. There are plenty of herbs that help to boost and support the immune system. You can incorporate some of these herbs in your cooking, in tea, or even add them to an immune boosting tincture. Whenever anyone around you is getting sick or you start to feel even the slightest tickle in your throat, you should start immune boosting!
If you are going on a trip that requires you to be in an airport, train station, or some other crowded area, start boosting your immunities weeks before your trip to prevent illness.
I like to make the tincture of this because it is much more effective, but I do always keep the herbal mixture on hand for a quick tea! I love to add lemon juice and honey to my teas, both for their antiseptic properties and their yummy flavoring capabilities.
Allow to steep for minutes before straining and drinking. The longer you steep the tea, the more potent it will be. Allow to steep in the jar for weeks, shaking daily to mix. Strain tincture using a cheesecloth or strainer.