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Bottomland hardwood swamp is a name commonly given to forested swamps in the south central United States. Webarchive template wayback links. List of Foods High in Insoluble Fiber. Northern bogs often form in old glacial lakes. It's a very effective way to increase your fitness level remember stroke volume and mitochondria activity! Physical examination, patient history, blood tests, and imaging tests are used to diagnose congestive heart failure.
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In English, we only have twenty-six letters, but we can make thousands of words. In chemistry , you are working with almost elements. When you combine them, you can make millions of different molecules. Molecules are groups of atoms in the same way that words are groups of letters.
An "A" will always be an "A" no matter what word it is in. A sodium Na atom will always be a sodium atom no matter what molecule it is in. While atoms from different elements have different masses and structures, they are all built with the same parts.
Electrons , protons, and neutrons are the basic subunits for all atoms across the Universe. From Simple to Complex If you want to do a little more thinking, imagine the smallest particles of matter. Super-tiny subatomic particles are used to create the parts of atoms. Protons, neutrons, and electrons can then organize to form atoms. Atoms are then used to create the molecules around us. As we just learned, there are almost elements that can be found in the molecules we know.
Smaller molecules can work together and build macromolecules. It just goes on. Everything you see or imagine is built from something else. You could start really small And finish really big. All of that is possible because of atoms. Chemistry Definition and Overview Biology4Kids: See the full list of chemistry topics at the site map! They are paid advertisements and neither partners nor recommended web sites. They are most prevalent in the United States on the eastern coast from Maine to Florida and continuing on to Louisiana and Texas along the Gulf of Mexico.
Some are freshwater marshes, others are brackish somewhat salty , and still others are saline salty , but they are all influenced by the motion of ocean tides. Tidal marshes are normally categorized into two distinct zones, the lower or intertidal marsh and the upper or high marsh.
In saline tidal marshes, the lower marsh is normally covered and exposed daily by the tide. It is predominantly covered by the tall form of Smooth Cordgrass Spartina alterniflora. The saline marsh is covered by water only sporadically and is characterized by Short Smooth Cordgrass, Spike Grass and Saltmeadow Rush Juncus gerardii. Saline marshes support a highly specialized set of life adapted for saline conditions. Tidal marshes serve many important functions. They buffer stormy seas, slow shoreline erosion and are able to absorb excess nutrients before they reach oceans and estuaries.
Tidal marshes also provide vital food and habitat for clams, crabs and juvenile fish, as well as offering shelter and nesting sites for several species of migratory waterfowl. Pressure to fill in these wetlands for coastal development has led to significant and continuing losses of tidal marshes, especially along the Atlantic coast.
Pollution, especially near urban areas, also remains a serious threat to these ecosystems. Fortunately, most states have enacted special laws to protect tidal marshes, but diligence is needed to assure that these protective measures are actively enforced. A swamp is any wetland dominated by woody plants. There are many different kinds of swamps, ranging from the forested Red Maple, Acer rubrum , swamps of the Northeast to the extensive bottomland hardwood forests found along the sluggish rivers of the Southeast.
Swamps are characterized by saturated soils during the growing season and standing water during certain times of the year. The highly organic soils of swamps form a thick, black, nutrient-rich environment for the growth of water-tolerant trees such as Cypress Taxodium spp. Some swamps are dominated by shrubs, such as Buttonbush or Smooth Alder.
Plants, birds, fish, and invertebrates such as freshwater shrimp, crayfish, and clams require the habitats provided by swamps. Many rare species, such as the endangered American Crocodile, depend on these ecosystems as well. Swamps may be divided into two major classes, depending on the type of vegetation present: Swamps serve vital roles in flood protection and nutrient removal. Floodplain forests are especially high in productivity and species diversity because of the rich deposits of alluvial soil from floods.
Many upland creatures depend on the abundance of food found in the lowland swamps, and valuable timber can be sustainably harvested to provide building materials for people.
Due to the nutrient-rich soils present in swamps, many of these fertile woodlands have been drained and cleared for agriculture and other development. Historically, swamps have been portrayed as frightening no-man's-lands. This perception led to the vast devastation of immense tracts of swampland over the past years, such as the destruction of more than half of the legendary Great Dismal Swamp of southeastern Virginia. Forested swamps are found throughout the United States.
They are often inundated with floodwater from nearby rivers and streams. Sometimes, they are covered by many feet of very slowly moving or standing water. In very dry years they may represent the only shallow water for miles and their presence is critical to the survival of wetland-dependent species like Wood Ducks Aix sponsa , River Otters Lutra canadensis and Cottonmouth Snakes Agkistrodon piscivorus.
Bottomland hardwood swamp is a name commonly given to forested swamps in the south central United States. Shrub swamps are similar to forested swamps except that shrubby vegetation such as Buttonbush, Willow, Dogwood Cornus sp. In fact, forested and shrub swamps are often found adjacent to one another.
The soil is often water logged for much of the year and covered at times by as much as a few feet of water because this type of swamp is found along slow moving streams and in floodplains. Mangrove swamps are a type of shrub swamp dominated by mangroves that covers vast expanses of southern Florida. Bogs are one of North America's most distinctive kinds of wetlands.
They are characterized by spongy peat deposits, acidic waters and a floor covered by a thick carpet of sphagnum moss. Bogs receive all or most of their water from precipitation rather than from runoff, groundwater or streams.
As a result, bogs are low in the nutrients needed for plant growth, a condition that is enhanced by acid forming peat mosses. There are two primary ways that a bog can develop: Over time, many feet of acidic peat deposits build up in bogs of either origin. The unique and demanding physical and chemical characteristics of bogs result in the presence of plant and animal communities that demonstrate many special adaptations to low nutrient levels, waterlogged conditions, and acidic waters, such as carnivorous plants.
Bogs serve an important ecological function in preventing downstream flooding by absorbing precipitation. Bogs support some of the most interesting plants in the United States like the carnivorous Sundew and provide habitat to animals threatened by human encroachment. Bogs in the United States are mostly found in the glaciated northeast and Great Lakes regions northern bogs but also in the southeast pocosins.
Their acreage declined historically as they were drained to be used as cropland and mined for their peat, which was used as a fuel and a soil conditioner.
Recently, bogs have been recognized for their role in regulating the global climate by storing large amounts of carbon in peat deposits. Bogs are unique communities that can be destroyed in a matter of days but require hundreds, if not thousands, of years to form naturally. Northern bogs are generally associated with low temperatures and short growing seasons where ample precipitation and high humidity cause excessive moisture to accumulate.
Therefore, most bogs in the United States are found in the northern states. Northern bogs often form in old glacial lakes. They may have either considerable amounts of open water surrounded by floating vegetation or vegetation may have completely filled the lake terrestrialization. The sphagnum peats of northern bogs cause especially acidic waters. The result is a wetland ecosystem with a very specialized and unique flora and fauna that can grow in these conditions called acidophiles.
Moose, deer, and lynx are a few of the animals that can be found in northern bogs. Pocosins are densely vegetated with trees and shrubs. They are subjected to fire about every 10 to 30 years Photo by Dr.
The word pocosin comes from the Algonquin Native American word for "swamp on a hill. Usually, there is no standing water present in pocosins, but a shallow water table leaves the soil saturated for much of the year.
They range in size from less than an acre to several thousand acres located between and isolated from old or existing stream systems in most instances. Because pocosins are found in broad, flat, upland areas far from large streams, they are ombrotrophic like northern bogs, meaning rain provides most of their water. The soil itself is a mixture of peat and sand containing large amounts of charcoal from periodic burnings.
These natural fires occur because pocosins periodically become very dry in the spring or summer. The fires are ecologically important because they increase the diversity of shrub types in pocosins. The most common plants are evergreen trees Loblolly Bay, Red Bay and Sweet Bay , and evergreen shrubs titi, fetterbush and zenobia.
Pocosins provide important habitat for many animals, including some endangered species like the red-cockaded woodpecker. They are especially important as the last refuge for Black Bears in coastal Virginia and North Carolina and the Red Wolf has recently been reintroduced in North Carolina pocosins. Habitat is the most valuable function of Pocosins. Some pocosins are very large and difficult to develop, and so they remain largely undisturbed.
As a result, they are a haven for species adapted to living in unaltered forests. As more and more land is developed in the Eastern United States, pocosins are becoming ever more valuable refuges for wildlife. The Sweet Pitcher Plant Sarracenia rubra is one of the carnivorous plants found in pocosins.
The slow movement of water through the dense organic matter in pocosins removes excess nutrients deposited by rainwater.