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Consequently, offering competitive foods in vending machines at schools is associated with significantly higher BMI among middle school students What are the direct and indirect overall contributions of socio-environmental, personal, and behavioral factors to the explained variance in dietary intake and Body Mass Index? Girls are motivated by physical activities that they prefer and by their confidence in their ability to perform an activity Across ethnicity, nutrient intakes varied considerably. This person serves as an active member of the district-level school health council and communicates the district school health council's decisions and actions to school-level health coordinators and teams, staff, students, and parents ,
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Each research team member has made valuable contributions from their particular area of expertise. Our findings have important implications for the development of interventions aimed at improving dietary practices and psychosocial health of adolescents. Eisenberg has been very involved in survey development, data analysis and manuscript writing. As a social epidemiologist, her interests are in the social forces which influence adolescent health behaviors. On Project EAT, she has examined the relationships between weight-teasing and emotional well-being, peer harassment in schools and school success, and family meal patterns and a variety of high risk behaviors.
She received her PhD in marriage and family therapy from the University of Minnesota. She has written papers on the influence of the significant other on health behaviors and weight status, and the association between parenting style and child health behaviors and weight status from Project EAT data. Her current work focuses on identifying weight gain prevention strategies for young adults, particularly in targeting influential determinants of nutrition and physical activity within post-secondary campus settings.
She has been a co-investigator and statistician on Project EAT since Her research interests are in statistical modeling of behavioral health data, in particular using latent variable models like structural equation models. His interests are in epidemiologic methods, Bayesian analysis and causal inference. His contributions to Project EAT involve study design and analysis as well as the development of methods for appropriate statistical inference.
Over the past 10 years, her research publications have focused on factors within social and physical environments that may be modified to promote healthy eating among children, adolescents, and young adults.
She has made use of data from the EAT studies to examine how dietary intake changes during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and what individual and socioenvironmental factors influence those changes. She has over 17 years of experience working a research coordinator for NIH-funded studies, primarily focused on obesity prevention. Her training is in city planning and architecture and her work focuses on the social aspects of physical planning, urban design, and urban development.
Forsyth has done work on walkability and the relationship between health and the built environment funded by such organizations as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. She is the editor of two handbooks about using geographic information systems GIS to measure the intersections between health and the built environment as well as a collaborator on a number of tools featured on the web site www.
As a PhD student, she served as the Project Director for Project F-EAT and examined associations between food-related parenting practices and adolescent weight status and disordered eating behaviors as part of her dissertation research and is now a co-investigator on the project. Loth to explore her interests of social and environmental influences on child and adolescent weight status and disordered eating behaviors.
Specifically, she is interested in identifying ways that parents can work to help their children develop and maintain a healthy weight and a healthy relationship with their bodies. Loth is also a dietitian and sees patients in local clinics and helps to train medical residents. As a psychologist she conducts family-focused, community-based research.
Her research is focused on changing the home food environment and promoting family meals. She blends her content knowledge in eating behaviors, family meals, childhood obesity and nutrition interventions with her skills in methodology, statistical analysis and program evaluation. He made sure that analyses for the project were carried out with statistical appropriateness and developed methods to avoid unnecessarily dropping participants from analytic models.
In the course of this work, Peter mentored numerous students, fellows, and young investigators who are now actively pursuing research in the field of public health nutrition and community health promotion. His research interests include physical activity measurement in children and adolescents, the effect of the environment on physical activity and sedentary behavior, and the promotion of physical activity for the prevention of overweight and obesity in youth. Most health surveys with adolescents have included just a few questions on nutrition and eating patterns.
Baseline surveys and anthropometric measurements were completed in school classrooms during the school year. In addition, a similar telephone questionnaire was administered to parents of adolescent participants. Details of the research design are described below and published manuscripts from Project EAT I are posted on the Publications page. Newsletter sent to participating schools pdf.
Qualitative data collected from focus groups were analyzed by the constant comparative method. Quantitative data collected from survey participants were analyzed by a variety of statistical methods according to whether the data were categorical or continuous and according to the purpose of the analysis.
For details please see the individual publications from Project EAT. More than 2, participants completed follow-up surveys assessing personal, behavioral, and socio-environmental constructs in the model of factors hypothesized to influence eating behaviors.
Data collection was completed in June Project EAT II addresses questions about weight status, weight control behaviors, and dietary intake patterns targeted in Healthy People In all analyses data are weighted to adjust for differential response rates using the response propensity method for a large number of predictor variables available from the EAT I survey i. Survey data collected are analyzed by a variety of statistical methods according to whether the data represents categorical or continuous variables and according to the purpose of the analysis.
For details please see the individual publications from Project EAT II that will be posted online as manuscripts are published. To address the Project EAT II objectives and examine changes in eating patterns and weight status over 5 years, surveys were mailed to all original Project EAT I participants for whom contact information was available in Nearly participants completed year follow-up surveys assessing weight status, weight-related behaviors, and potential correlates of these outcomes.
Data collection using online and mailed surveys was completed in October Details of the research design are described below and published manuscripts from Project EAT III will be posted on the Publications page as the survey data are analyzed.
Project EAT III aims to determine the prevalence of weight status and related behaviors, including weight control behaviors, dietary intake, and physical activity during young adulthood and trajectories of these variables during the critical transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Project EAT III further aims to enhance our understanding of the environmental, personal, and behavioral factors that influence weight status and related behaviors, including weight control behaviors, dietary intake, and physical activity, during adolescence and young adulthood.
Survey development involved a comprehensive literature review, focus group discussions, and an assessment of test-retest reliability. Survey invitation letters, providing the web address and a unique password for completing the online version of the Project EAT III survey and a food frequency questionnaire were mailed to all original Project EAT I participants for whom contact information was available. Participants who did not respond to the initial invitation were sent three reminder letters.
The second reminder letter included paper copies of the survey and food frequency questionnaire, and all other mailings included a postage-paid card for requesting paper copies. Additional information regarding data collection may be found in the manuscript: Response rates to a web and mailed survey of weight-related health behaviors.
As a pilot study, up to one pre-adolescent or adolescent child per participant will be asked to participate in height and weight measurements and respond to survey questions about their own eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight-related problems.
Collecting inter-generational data in future study waves when a larger proportion of participants are expected to have children ages years will allow for answering how weight-related behaviors are passed on from one generation to the next and the types of factors that influence the transmission of these behaviors. Data collection using online surveys and phone interviews is ongoing. Details of the research design are described below and published manuscripts from Project EAT IV will be posted on the Publications page as the survey data are analyzed.
The overall aim of Project EAT IV is to build a greater understanding of how eating behaviors, physical activity patterns, and weight-related problems, along with the various factors that influence these outcomes, track over the life course from adolescence to young adulthood. Among participants who are parents, the study will attempt to identify implications for their children and what factors in young adulthood modify the strength of these relationships.
The theoretical model guiding the design of Project EAT IV is informed by social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective. Additionally, Project EAT IV is being guided by a life course approach to enhance our understanding of trajectories of eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight-related problems, and influences on these outcomes, throughout the lifespan and across generations.
Survey development was directed by theory, an updated literature review, a review of surveys and findings from previous study waves, several reviews of draft surveys by content experts, focus groups with young adults in their late twenties and early thirties, and psychometric testing.
Survey invitation letters, providing the web address and a unique password for completing the online version of the Project EAT IV survey and a food frequency questionnaire were mailed to all original Project EAT I participants for whom contact information was available in January Participants who do not go online to complete the survey in response to the initial invitation will be sent a reminder letter and also given the opportunity to complete the survey by phone.
Similarly, survey data are being collected from significant others, children, and co-parents using online surveys and phone interviews when consent is provided by the young adult participant enrolled in the longitudinal study.
Data collection is being conducted by Wilder Research , the research arm of the Amherst H. Wilder Foundation, in St. EAT Project EAT used an ecological framework to guide the collection of data at the individual, family, friend, school, and neighborhood levels on factors of potential relevance to weight status and related behaviors among adolescents.
Approximately adolescents from 20 metropolitan middle and high schools in Minnesota completed surveys about their eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors. Surveys and measurements of student height and weight were completed in school classrooms during the school year. In addition, measurements of peer, school, and neighborhood environments were completed by peers themselves, school personnel, and Project EAT staff.
Parents of the adolescent participants were invited to complete surveys regarding home environments as part of Project F-EAT. Details of the research design are described below and published manuscripts from Project EAT will be posted on the Publications page as the data are analyzed. Surveys were administered by trained research staff to middle and high school students in the Minneapolis and St.
Paul school districts in Minnesota. Students completed the Project EAT Student Survey, a food frequency questionnaire, and a physical activity questionnaire. The Project EAT Student Survey was developed by the principal investigator and research team to assess weight status, weight-related behaviors, and potential correlates of these outcomes.
Trained research staff also collected student height and weight measurements using a standardized protocol. Surveys regarding the school environment were completed by personnel at each participating school, including an administrator, food service manager, and physical activity teacher. The surveys were designed to assess school resources, policies, and practices of relevance to eating, physical activity, and weight-related harassment.
Geographic data are being used to learn about residential and school neighborhood environments. Measurements relating to local food environments, utilitarian physical activity environments, recreational physical activity environments, and neighborhood safety are being completed by the Spatial Analysis Core at the Minnesota Population Center.
Additional details about the EAT Survey are posted online. Project F-EAT is an ancillary study to EAT Eating and Activity in Teens designed to examine influences within the family and home environment on eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors of adolescents.
Adolescents participants in the EAT study were asked to identify up to two parents or guardians. To meet the needs of this culturally diverse group of parents, both the mailed and telephone survey were available in English, Spanish, Hmong, and Somali and the telephone survey was additionally offered in Oromo, Amharic and Karen.
Project F-EAT Families and Eating and Activity in Teens will improve our understanding of how the family and home environment influence the eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors of young people.
Project Results Findings from Project EAT have been disseminated in more than publications and numerous presentations. For more information, please see our Publications page.
In , responding to news articles in which the term orthorexia is applied to people who merely follow a non-mainstream theory of healthy eating, Bratman specified the following: They are simply adherents of a dietary theory.
The term 'orthorexia' only applies when an eating disorder develops around that theory. Although orthorexia is not recognized as a mental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association, and it is not listed in the DSM-5 ,  as of January , four case reports and more than 40 other articles on the subject have been published in a variety of peer-reviewed journals internationally.
According to the Macmillan English Dictionary, the word is entering the English lexicon. Obsessive focus on "healthy" eating, as defined by a dietary theory or set of beliefs whose specific details may vary; marked by exaggerated emotional distress in relationship to food choices perceived as unhealthy; weight loss may ensue, but this is conceptualized as an aspect of ideal health rather than as the primary goal.
As evidenced by the following:. The compulsive behavior and mental preoccupation becomes clinically impairing by any of the following:.
A diagnostic questionnaire has been developed for orthorexia sufferers, similar to questionnaires for other eating disorders, named the ORTO Symptoms of orthorexia nervosa include "obsessive focus on food choice, planning, purchase, preparation, and consumption; food regarded primarily as source of health rather than pleasure; distress or disgust when in proximity to prohibited foods; exaggerated faith that inclusion or elimination of particular kinds of food can prevent or cure disease or affect daily well-being; periodic shifts in dietary beliefs while other processes persist unchanged; moral judgment of others based on dietary choices; body image distortion around sense of physical "impurity" rather than weight; persistent belief that dietary practices are health-promoting despite evidence of malnutrition.
Results across scientific findings have yet to find a definitive conclusion to support whether nutrition students and professionals are at higher risk than other population subgroups, due to differing results in the research literature.
There are only a few notable scientific works that, in an attempt to explore the breadth and depth of the still vaguely-understood illness, have tried to identify which groups in society are most vulnerable to its onset.
This study also inferred that orthorexic tendencies may even fuel a desire to study the science, indicating that many within this field might suffer from the disorder before commencing the course. However the results found that the students in the study, upon initial embarkation of their degree, did not have higher orthorexic values than other non-nutrition university students, and thus the report concluded that further research is needed to clarify the relationship between food-education and the onset of ON.
Similarly, in a Portuguese study on nutrition tertiary students,  the participants' orthorexic scores according to the ORTO diagnostic questionnaire  actually decreased as they progressed through their course, as well as the overall risk of developing an eating disorder being an insignificant 4.
The participants also answered questionnaires to provide insight into their eating behaviours and attitudes, and despite this study finding that nutrition and health-science students tend to have more restrictive eating behaviours, these studies however found no evidence to support that these students have "more disturbed or disordered eating patterns than other students"  These two aforementioned studies conclude that the more understanding of food one has is not necessarily a risk factor for ON, explaining that the data gathered suggests dietetics professionals are not at significant risk of it.
However, these epidemiologic studies have been critiqued as using a fundamentally flawed survey tool that inflates prevalence rates. The concept of orthorexia as a newly developing eating disorder has attracted significant media attention in the 21st century. There has been no investigation into whether there may be a biological cause specific to orthorexia nervosa. It may be a food-centered manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder , which has a lot to do with control.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 16 October Can Healthy Eating Be a Disorder?