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How Limbic System Therapy Can Help Resolve Trauma
So one of the best things teachers can do is remind them about how prepared they are, pointing out the presentations or projects they made that demonstrated their strengths and having students take a few moments to recall and focus on these strengths. Hopefully, by the time students at the extremes of the social and academic spectrums reach high school, they have had teachers who challenged them to reach their highest potential, helped them build confidence, and showed them that individuality is more empowering than trying to fit in. Most of the strategies I describe in this book help promote these five conditions. Technology as a Memory Tool Multiple forms of review using different techniques for practicing the same material are of added benefit for memory consolidation, retrieval, and processing through executive function. My reputation at least for now is safe. From brain mapping we know that predictable tiny regions of the brain are where specific cognitive activities take place. It also pacifies the desires of the senses for gratification, and creates a concurrent feeling of happiness and contentment.

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Ajit Vadakayil

Both treatment modalities demonstrated similar changes in the brain—especially in the caudate nucleus. Drawn together, these system level studies suggest that cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT , dialectic behavior therapy DBT , psychodynamic psychotherapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy alter brain function in patients suffering from major depressive disorder MDD , obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, posttraumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder BPD.

The majority of these studies have reported similar brain changes after psychotherapy and medication. However, some recent studies have also shown clear differences among these treatment modalities. In the study by Goldapple and colleagues, 5 treatment response for CBT in patients with MDD was associated with increases in metabolism in the hippocampus and dorsal cingulate and decreases in the dorsal, ventral, and medial frontal cortex. This pattern was clearly distinct from the pattern caused by paroxetine, which included increases in metabolism in the prefrontal areas and decreases in the hippocampus and subgenual cingulate.

In the recent study by Karlsson and colleagues, 17 clear differences emerged between short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and fluoxetine among patients with MDD. In addition to just reporting the findings on brain changes as a result of psychotherapy, some of these studies have made it possible to construct models that explain the mechanisms behind the changes that result from the different psychotherapies. These models can then be compared with the psychological theories of these psychotherapies.

The brain areas that play a role in these functions include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, ventral and dorsal subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, insular cortex, amygdala, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. For a review, see Frewen et al. For example, the mechanism behind the effectiveness of cognitive therapy for patients with MDD could be through an increase in prefrontal function, which is involved in cognitive control, while antidepressant medications operate more directly on the amygdala, which is involved in the generation of negative emotion.

The findings from a study by Beutel and colleagues 10 are in line with this hypothesis and demonstrate both a frontal deactivation and an amygdala-hippocampal hyperactivation seen in symptomatic patients with panic disorder. When their panic symptoms and anxiety levels were reduced following treatment, the frontal deactivation and amygdala-hippocampus hyperactivation were normalized. This would mean that DBT leads to a decrease in the activity in relation to emotional stimuli in the brain areas that serve these functions.

This was indeed found in the study by Schnell and Herpertz, 15 whose findings suggest that after DBT, there is a decrease in hemodynamic response to negative stimuli in the right-sided anterior cingulate, the temporal and posterior cingulate cortices, and the left insula. All these studies, however, have investigated the brain changes on the whole brain systems level.

To understand the more basic mechanisms related to psychotherapy, possible molecular and cellular changes should also be studied. So far, only 2 Finnish studies have measured molecular level changes after psychotherapy, and in this way directly tested the hypothesis put forth by Kandel 2 that psychotherapy could lead to changes in gene expression through learning, by altering the strength of synaptic connections between nerve cells and inducing morphological changes in neurons.

Interestingly, in both studies, the psychotherapy that was used was psychodynamic. In the study by Lehto and colleagues, 20 19 depressive outpatients received psychodynamic psychotherapy for 12 months. Of the patients, 8 were classified as having atypical depression.

The researchers showed that midbrain serotonin transporter density significantly increased during psychotherapy in patients with atypical depression, but not among patients with standard depression. There were no changes in the levels of striatum dopamine transporter. Because of the subgroup finding, these results are difficult to interpret, and one of the shortcomings of this study is the lack of a control group. In the other Finnish study, patients with MDD were randomized to receive either short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy or fluoxetine.

Fluoxetine increased [11C]raclopride binding in the lateral thalamus; no change was seen in the group that received psychotherapy. Currently, the clinical implications of these findings are unknown, but they may be related to the finding that suggests that the relapse rate for MDD is lower in patients treated with psychotherapy than in those treated with antidepressants.

Although still preliminary, the studies using neuroimaging for measuring change caused by psychotherapy will in the long run lead to a more refined understanding of how different psychotherapies work. This may lead to a development in which specific modes of psychotherapy can be designed to target specific brain circuits. A neurobiologically informed perspective on psychotherapy. A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. Regional brain metabolic changes in patients with major depression treated with either paroxetine or interpersonal therapy: Brain blood flow changes in depressed patients treated with interpersonal psychotherapy or venlafaxine hydrochoride: Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: Caudate glucose metabolic rate changes with both drug and behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Effects of behavior therapy on regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Systematic changes in cerebral glucose metabolic rate after successful behavior modification treatment of obsessive—compulsive disorder. The change of regional brain metabolism 18FDG PET in panic disorder during the treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy or antidepressants.

Changes of brain activation pre- post short-term psychodynamic inpatient psychotherapy: Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive-behavioral therapy. It is also a popular ingredient in cosmetics, and has even been found in the remains of Anglo-Saxons and ancient Egyptians.

I believe that frankincense oil is one of the top essential oils you can use for your health. It's known for its comforting properties, and is useful for visualizing, improving one's spiritual connection and helping overcome stress and despair. Frankincense oil may also help in healthy cell regeneration and keep existing cells and tissues healthy. It's useful for skin health, and can help treat dry skin, reverse signs of aging and reduce the appearance of stretch marks and scars.

The main components of frankincense oil are ketonic alcohol olibanol , resinous matters 30 to 60 percent and terpenes such as a-and p-pinene, camphene, dipentene and phellandrene.

The monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are the most valuable elements of frankincense oil. According to the book, "Reference Guide for Essential Oils," by Connie and Alan Higley, monoterpenes help prevent and discharge toxins from your liver and kidneys, and have antiseptic, antibacterial, stimulating, analgesic weak and expectorant properties. Meanwhile, sesquiterpenes can go beyond the blood-brain barrier and help simulate the limbic system of your brain, as well as your hypothalamus, and pineal and pituitary glands.

The health benefits of frankincense oil are mostly attributed to its anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, disinfectant, digestive, diuretic and expectorant properties. It also has cicatrisant, carminative, cytophylactic, emenagogue, uterine and vulnerary effects. Frankincense oil is considered a tonic, as it benefits all the systems operating in the body, including the digestive, respiratory, nervous and excretory systems.

It also aids the absorption of nutrients and strengthens your immune system. In addition, Indian frankincense or boswellin, also a member of the Boswellia genus, has been found to significantly reduce inflammation in animal studies. It is actually one of my personal favorites, as I have seen it work well as a natural painkiller for many of my former rheumatoid arthritis RA patients. It also regulates the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women.

Frankincense is also being studied for its potential to treat cancer. Scientists have observed that there's an agent in this oil that may help stop cancer from spreading. Frankincense oil is made by steam-distilling the raw resin. When buying frankincense oil, make sure that you only choose percent pure essential oil of the highest quality.

Also, do not confuse frankincense essential oil with fragrance oil. Essential oils come from plants, while fragrance oils are usually artificially created and often contain synthetic chemicals.

Although they smell good and are typically less expensive, fragrance oils do not give you the therapeutic benefits of organic essential oils. The effects and benefits of frankincense oil can be acquired by applying it topically, inhaling it using a diffuser or vaporizer or ingesting it in very small amounts. Meanwhile, using a diffuser or inhaler works for treating colds and clearing up respiratory blockages.

You can also sprinkle a few drops on a clean cloth and inhale the scent or add it to your bathwater for a rejuvenating soak. Frankincense oil can be directly applied to the skin or blended with other carrier oils such as jojoba or sweet almond oil.

Yes, frankincense is generally safe. However, I advise doing a spot test first, to check if you have any sensitivity to this oil. When taking frankincense oil internally, it's best to dilute a drop in an edible carrier oil like coconut oil , a teaspoon of honey or a glass of purified water or any non-acidic, non-dairy beverage. Older children and teens may also require higher dilutions. There are no reported severe side effects of using this oil. It also has blood thinning effects, and may increase the risk of abnormal bleeding in people with a bleeding disorder or taking anticoagulant medications.