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Tue Jun 3, 9: Maintaining a healthy weight has never been this easy, and this is coming from someone who has made full use of her gym membership in the past in an effort to attain healthy weight. Choosing wholegrain bread, pasta and other cereals will help to boost fibre intake. I have yet to receive any response from anyone at the company except a oh you poor thing from the girl with whom I cancelled my future orders with. Sport Management Education Journal. You're so sick from whatever they put in the food that you can't eat. Salt NaCl is made up of sodium and chloride.
You also get free access to dietitians and counselors. Fitness and nutritional needs vary for both men and women. Considering this fact, NutriSystem has designed individual plans for men and women separately. This helps the men in losing weight healthily without facing those hunger pangs. This is a specially designed plan for vegetarians. All the meals and snacks of this plan include good carbohydrates and protein. The NutriSystem diet program is low in carbohydrates and rich in protein.
Food at NutriSystem tastes good. In addition, to make it even tastier, you can add your choice of cereals and muffins, as well as oatmeal to the meals. When you are dieting with NutriSystem, it will never make you feel that you are under weight-loss diet program. Other than breakfast, lunch and dinner, the company is offering desserts, snacks and shakes as well. All in all, almost all the food items offered in the diet program are tasty and the existing customers of the program are very happy with the taste.
Cost of the diet program depends on the chosen menu and diet plan. Initially, you may find it high. However, when you cross-check it by calculating your overall expenditure on your grocery items, time saved in shopping, preparation and other things, the cost is pretty reasonable.
Existing customers of the program are very happy with the diet program cost, and most of them say that the convenience, taste and results associated with the program are worth the price paid. It is very effective and you will start seeing the results in the first week itself.
The diet program has assisted millions of individuals in losing and controlling their weight; in addition, it has even improved their health and fitness too. The portion controlled meals are convenient to consume, and you can get over the burden of grocery shopping and food preparation. In most developed countries, however, a significant amount of sodium is added from the salt shaker 1 teaspoon [6 g] contains 2, milligrams of sodium or by food manufacturers in processing as listed on the food label.
Because sodium intake can vary, the typical Western diet contains 10 to 12 grams of salt 3. Because sodium plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance, the body has an effective mechanism to help regulate the levels of sodium in the blood on a variety of sodium intakes. If the sodium concentration in the blood starts to drop, a series of complex events leads to the secretion of a hormone called aldosterone, which signals the kidneys to retain sodium.
If sodium levels are too high, aldosterone secretion is inhibited, which allows the kidneys to eliminate some sodium through urination. Another hormone, called antidiuretic hormone ADH , also helps maintain normal sodium levels in body fluids by signaling the kidney to retain water and sodium.
Humans even have a natural appetite for salt, which helps assure that they take in enough sodium to maintain sodium balance. Indeed, I have great memories of eating salty tortilla chips wet with a little water—so more salt would stick—after long cycling races in Arizona. Thankfully, these sodium-conserving mechanisms are activated in athletes who lose excessive sodium and other electrolytes during prolonged sweating.
Although muscle cramps are reported to occur during the sodium-deficient state, some researchers believe that alterations in sodium balance are not involved in exercise-associated cramps.
This is despite the fact that significantly lower postexercise serum sodium concentrations have been found in endurance athletes who experienced cramps during a race compared to those who did not develop cramps. One of the reasons this is downplayed may be because serum sodium concentrations remain within the normal range, despite being significantly lower in the athletes with muscle cramps. Nevertheless, it is important for athletes to consume enough sodium to replace what is lost through sweat.
Despite the regulatory mechanisms discussed earlier, it is possible for vegetarian athletes to be at risk for muscle cramps and other problems because of low sodium intake. The reason is most likely because they ignore their salt craving cues—eating mostly unprocessed and unsalted foods—while continuing to lose considerable salt through sweating.
Thus, while it is not likely that low sodium intake is the cause of cramps in most athletes, it is certainly possible that a vegetarian athlete prudently following a low-sodium diet for health reasons might experience muscle cramps that would be relieved with more liberal use of the salt shaker. Potassium Potassium is the major electrolyte found inside all body cells, including muscle and nerve cells.
It works in close association with sodium and chloride in the generation of electrical impulses in the nerves and the muscles, including the heart muscle. Potassium is found in most foods, but is especially abundant in fresh vegetables, potatoes, certain fruits melon, bananas, berries, citrus fruit , milk, meat, and fish.
Potassium balance, like sodium balance, is regulated by the hormone aldosterone. A high serum potassium level stimulates the release of the hormone aldosterone, which leads to increased potassium excretion by the kidneys into the urine. A decrease in serum potassium concentration elicits a drop in aldosterone secretion and hence less potassium loss in the urine. As with sodium and calcium, potassium is typically precisely regulated, and deficiencies or excessive accumulation are rare.
Potassium deficiencies, however, can occur with conditions such as fasting, diarrhea, and regular diuretic use. In such cases, low blood—potassium concentrations, called hypokalemia , can lead to muscle cramps and weakness, and even cardiac arrest caused by impairment in the generation of nerve impulses. Similarly, high blood—potassium concentrations, or hyperkalemia , are also not common but can occur in people who take potassium supplements far exceeding the recommended daily allowance.
High blood—potassium concentrations can also disturb electrical impulses and induce cardiac arrhythmia. Even though little evidence is available to support a link between potassium intake and muscle cramps, it is quite interesting that most athletes—and non-athletes alike—think that the banana is the first line of defense in preventing muscle cramps. If only it were that simple. Furthermore, athletes following vegetarian diets are not likely to experience muscle cramping as a result of low potassium intake because the vegetarian diet provides an abundance of potassium.
An athlete who is recovering from an intestinal illness, restricting calories, or taking diuretics or laxatives should, nevertheless, make an effort to consume potassium-rich foods, particularly if he or she is experiencing muscle cramping.
Because of the dangers of hyperkalemia, potassium supplements are not recommended unless closely monitored by a physician.
The recommended daily intake for potassium is 4, milligrams per day for adults. Calcium As discussed in chapter 6, the vast majority of calcium found in the body is found in the skeleton where it lends strength to bone. Calcium, however, is involved in muscle contractions, including that of the heart, skeletal muscles, and smooth muscle found in blood vessels and intestines, as well as the generation of nerve impulses.
Blood calcium is tightly controlled and regulated by several hormones, including parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. Although impaired muscle contraction and muscle cramps are commonly listed as symptoms of calcium deficiency, many exercise scientists feel that low calcium intake is not likely to play a role in most muscle cramps.
This is because if dietary calcium intake were low, calcium would be released from the bones to maintain blood concentrations and theoretically provide what would be needed for muscle contraction.
This thinking, however, does not completely rule out the possibility that muscle cramping could be caused by a temporary imbalance of calcium in the muscle during exercise. Certainly, we know that people with inborn errors in calcium metabolism in skeletal muscle which will be discussed later are prone to muscle cramping. Despite so little being known about low calcium intake and muscle cramps, calcium is one of the nutritional factors people most associate with relieving cramps, second only to the potassium-rich banana.
Although to my knowledge studies have not assessed whether dietary or supplemental calcium affects exercise cramps in athletes, a recent report found that calcium supplementation was not effective in treating leg cramps associated with pregnancy.
On the other hand, anecdotal reports from athletes are common. Nancy Clark tells of a hiker who resolved muscle cramps by taking calcium-rich Tums and of a ballet dancer whose cramping disappeared after adding milk and yogurt to her diet. Because calcium intake can be low in the diet of some vegans and vegetarians, inadequate calcium should also be ruled out in vegetarians experiencing muscle cramps. Magnesium In addition to its role in bone health, magnesium plays an important role in stabilizing adenosine triphosphate ATP , the energy source for muscle contraction, and also serves as an electrolyte in body fluids.
Muscle weakness, muscle twitching, and muscle cramps are common symptoms of magnesium deficiency. Limited data have suggested that magnesium status is indirectly related to the incidence of muscle cramps. In these studies of endurance athletes, the athletes who developed muscle cramps were found to have serum magnesium concentrations that were different from their competitors who did not cramp.
The research, however, presents a confusing story because serum magnesium was significantly lower in cyclists who cramped during a mile km bike ride and significantly higher in runners who cramped during an ultradistance race. In both studies, serum magnesium remained within the normal range but was low-normal in the cyclists who cramped and high-normal in the runners.
Interestingly, studies in pregnant women have found that supplementation with magnesium taken as magnesium lactate or magnesium citrate in doses of 5 millimoles in the morning and 10 millimoles in the evening show promise for treating pregnancy-associated leg cramps.
Research, however, has not addressed whether dietary or supplemental magnesium can prevent or reduce muscle cramps in athletes. Vegetarian athletes are not likely to experience muscle cramping as a result of low magnesium intake because the typical vegetarian diet is abundant in magnesium. Low magnesium intake, however, is possible for people restricting calories or eating a diet high in processed foods. Low magnesium intake should be ruled out in cramp-prone athletes.
Carbohydrate Inadequate carbohydrate stores have also been implicated as a potential cause of muscle cramps. Theoretically, it makes sense that hard-working muscles might experience cramping in association with the depletion of its power source—carbohydrate. While all athletes should consider the recommendations presented earlier to optimize performance, athletes with a history of cramping during prolonged exercise should ensure that they consume adequate carbohydrate during exercise and in the days before and days following an endurance event.